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Transnational Japan in the Global Environmental Movement$

Simon Avenell

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780824867133

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: September 2017

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824867133.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM HAWAII SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hawaii.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hawaii University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HSO for personal use.date: 27 July 2021

(p.305) Index

(p.305) Index

Source:
Transnational Japan in the Global Environmental Movement
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press

Photographs indicated by page numbers in italics

Adedeji, Adebayo, 106
African Action Committee, 145
Agarwal, Anil, 192, 216
Aima, Nobuo, 163
air pollution, 29, 45, 63, 182, 184, 198, 216
Akagi, Taketoshi, 62
Albert, Mathias, 12
Aldrich, Daniel, 223, 226, 273n77
Alley, William M., and Rosemarie Alley, 152, 157
Amano, Reiko, 196
Amin, Ash, 53, 217
Amin, Samir, 106
AMPO magazine, 77, 116, 118, 140, 146, 150, 156, 223–224
Anastacio, Ignatio, 167–169, 171
antinuclear movements:
Japanese, 21–22, 161–162, 224, 273n77;
transnational encounters, 64–65, 66, 78, 164–165. See also nuclear power
Antinuclear Pacific Ocean PACIFICA (newsletter), 161. See also Don’t Let the Pollution Escape (newsletter)
Antipollution Export Information Center (AEIC), 114, 147, 150, 159
Aoyama, Tadashi, 16
Appiah, Kwame Anthony, 8
Arahata, Kanson, 40
Arakawa, Shunji, 163
Aramoto, Hirofumi, 163
Arisawa, Hiromi, 155
Ariyoshi, Sawako, 32, 33
arsenic contamination, 26, 27
Asahi Glass Corporation, 114, 117, 124, 125, 126. See also Thai Asahi Caustic Soda Company
Asahi Shinbun, 31, 90, 93, 178, 200
Asahi Shūkan, 40
Asaoka, Emi, 208
Ashio copper mine pollution, 95, 96, 98, 99
Asian Rural Institute, 225
Asian Women’s Conference Opposing Invasion=Discrimination, 224
Atmospheric Action Network of East Asia, 184
Atsuko, Satō, 182
Bangladesh, 225
Bedor, Roman, 148, 157, 162, 172, 173
Beheiren, 114, 116–117, 125, 223, 250n16
Bender, Thomas, 221
Bikini Atoll, 151, 157, 162
Binsko, John, 163
Bokutō Association, 136–138, 254n107
(p.306) boomerang effect, 10, 13, 17, 55, 83, 110, 150, 225–226
Boulding, Kenneth, 81
Brazil, 106, 146, 199
Broadbent, Jeffrey, 223, 227
Brown, Edmund Gerald “Pat,” 64
Brundtland Commission:
Our Common Future, 108, 179–180, 191, 215
Budapest, 53
Bush, George H. W., 178, 191, 194
cadmium, 29, 93
California, 64
Calvo, Paul, 157, 159, 160, 165
Camacho, Carlos, 157, 159, 160, 171
capitalism, 41–42, 44, 45, 78, 87–88, 104
Carson, Rachel, 2, 25, 32, 218
Carter, Anthony, 90, 92
Chamniern, Paul, 117–118
Chatterjee, Ardhen, 187
Chiba Pollution Academy, 140, 143, 145
China, 87–88
Chūnichi Shinbun, 62
Citizens’ Alliance for Saving Earth and Atmosphere (CASA), 182, 183–184, 229
Citizens’ Nuclear Information Center (CNIC), 224
Citizens Rally to Protest Pollution Export to Asia, 145, 146–147
civic activism, see Japanese civic activism
Clapp, Jennifer, 179, 191
Clarke, Arthur C., 81
Clarkson, Thomas W., 73
class, 4, 41–42
Clean Air Act (1970), 1–2, 63
climate change, 7, 22, 177–178, 184, 209, 215–216
The Closing Circle (Commoner), 82, 218
Club of Rome:
The Limits to Growth, 82–83, 94
colonialism, see neocolonialism
Commoner, Barry, 32, 63, 82, 84, 88, 89, 218, 219
Conant, James B., 148
Conference of Asians:
introduction, 114;
activities, 117–119;
on exploitation of women, 15–16;
goals, 117, 119;
ideational developments, 117, 119–120, 229;
participants, 116, 117
Conway, Janet, 230
Corea, Gamani, 106
corporate castle town, 43, 72, 239n55
cosmopolitanism, rooted, 8–9, 17, 52, 212
Cousteau, Jacques-Yves, 32, 153
Curtis, Richard, 1
Czechoslovakia, 54
Dahmén, Erik, 104–105
Dai Dong Conference, 89, 93
Danube River, 53
Dauvergne, Peter, 179, 191
Davis, Jackson, 153, 160, 171
Declaration on the Human Environment, 86
de Seynes, Philippe, 217
developing nations:
Dai Dong Conference, 89;
environmental movements in, 2;
Founex Report, 106–107;
and Iwasaki, 201–202, 204;
Japanese solidarity with, 4, 84, (p.307) 175, 215;
and population growth approach, 88;
responsibility of developed nations to, 82, 109, 110, 186, 188, 190, 209–210;
suspicion of environmentalism, 105–106, 215–216
development:
endogenous, 22, 181, 188, 204, 208, 210, 213, 219;
externality considerations, 85, 103–104, 105;
fallacy of free market, 104;
Founex Report, 106–107, 108–109, 204;
GNP index, 95, 102–103, 104, 105;
human cost of, 82, 101;
Iwasaki on, 204;
Japanese activists on, 84;
Kanagawa Declaration, 187–189;
The Limits to Growth, 82–83, 94;
as more than material, 187–189, 204–205;
People’s Forum on, 187–189;
developmental activism, 224–225
Diaz, Francisco M., 165, 171
Dirlik, Arif, 5, 52–53, 214–215
discrimination:
as cause for pollution, 40, 49–50, 75–76, 213, 218;
and globalizing discourses, 181;
Nippon Chemical protests, 137;
of nuclear power, 152, 171;
of victims, 48, 49–50
disease, pollution, 35, 67–68, 76. See also Itai Itai disease; Minamata disease
Doherty, Brian, 215–216
Don’t Let the Pollution Escape (newsletter), 147, 161
Doyle, Timothy, 215–216
Duara, Prasenjit, 222
Dubos, René Jules:
Only One Earth, 86, 179, 217
Earth Summit, 88, 179, 190–191, 191–193, 196–197. See also Global Forum
Eckle, Jan, 219
ECO (newsletter), 105
Ehrlich, Paul, 1, 32, 82, 88, 219
emancipatory environmentalism, 216
endogenous development, 22, 181, 188, 204, 208, 210, 213, 219
Environmental Agency of Japan (EAJ), 3, 35, 83, 139
Environmental Forum, 88, 93
environmental injustice paradigm:
introduction, 4–5, 17–19, 23, 211–212;
anthropocentric approach, 4, 17, 84, 87, 213–214, 217–218, 230;
and antinuclear issues, 66;
attributes of, 213, 230;
and Earth Summit, 199–200;
and global-scale problems, 200;
and human rights, 219–220;
impact of transnationalism on, 13, 16, 55, 62, 228–229;
iterations of, 18–19;
and limits of growth, 113;
localist perspective of, 180–181, 217;
and nuclear waste dumping, 150–151;
and pollution export, 113–114;
and relevance of local knowledge, 214;
rooted in human suffering, 4, 8, 25, 36, 51, 230. See also Japanese transnational environmental activism
environmental nongovernment organizations, 2, 110, 181–182, 193. See also Japanese civic activism
(p.308) European Nuclear Energy Agency (ENEA), 153
externalities, 85, 103–104, 105
Fisher, Dave, 1
food poisoning, 26–27
Forum on Asian NGOs and the Global Environment, 186–187
The Founex Report on Environment and Development, 106–107, 108–109, 204
France, 3, 153, 157, 163
Friberg, Lars, 93
Friends of the Earth (FoE), 2, 181–182
Fujino, Tadashi, 62
Fukugō Osen (Ariyoshi), 33
Fukushima nuclear disaster (2011), 3, 273n77
Gandhi, Indira, 87, 105, 215
George, Timothy, 8
Global Forum:
atmosphere, 193–194, 195;
Japanese activists, 194–195, 199–200;
Japanese glocal agenda, 197–198, 199;
Japan Night, 196, 197;
parallel to Earth Summit, 193;
participants, 193. See also Earth Summit
globalism, 5–6, 81, 215, 217
globalization, 175
global-scale environmentalism:
approach to, 180;
beginnings of, 2–3, 81;
climate change, 7, 22, 177–178, 184, 209, 215–216;
debate on local within, 5–6, 216–217;
disagreement within, 81–83;
Japanese activism on, 22, 182–186;
local approach to, 180–181, 184, 187–189, 200, 210;
marginalization and injustice focus, 208;
Our Common Future (report), 179–180;
skepticism of, 4–5, 175;
suspicions by developing countries, 105–106, 215–216;
glocalization, 6
GNP (Gross National Product), 95, 102–103, 104, 105
Goldman, Marshall, 100
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 178
governments, 60
Grassy Narrows/White Dog mercury contamination:
introduction, 20, 54, 71–72;
cause of, 72;
discrimination as cause, 75–76;
Harada’s studies, 73–74, 75;
impact on victims, 73;
importance of transnational engagement, 80;
invitation to Japanese, 61;
Ontario government reactions, 72–73, 74–75;
victim visits between Canada and Japan, 76–77
Greenpeace, 2, 181–182
growth, 82–83, 94. See also development
Guam, 157, 159, 160, 163, 165, 170, 171
Haas, Peter, 11
Hagino, Noboru, 40, 92, 93
Hall, Derek, 115
Hamamoto, Tsuginori, 92, 93, 118
Hangenpatsu Shinbun, 161
Hansen, James, 177
Harada, Masazumi:
on discrimination, 75–76, 218;
in (p.309) Finland, 66–67, 69;
and Grassy Narrows/White Dog contamination, 54, 73–75, 218;
international trips, 62;
lessons from transnational engagement, 6, 52, 55, 78, 79;
mercury focus, 66;
and Minamata disease, 48–50;
in New Mexico, 69, 70–71;
in RCP, 238n35;
reasons for activism, 19–20, 48–50, 51;
rethinking of previous Minamata disease work, 57, 67–68, 70–71;
transnational impulse, 50–51;
at UNCHE, 92, 93
Haraway, Donna, 6, 211
Hardin, Garrett, 218
harmonization, 34, 35, 185, 190
Hasegawa, Kōichi, 223, 227
Hashimoto, Fujie, 92
Hashimoto, Shinobu, 92
Heise, Ursula, 2, 5, 81, 214
Herrera, Felipe, 106
hexavalent chromium, 134
Hirayama, Takasada, 120–121, 125, 126, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135, 136
Honami, Minoru, 163
Honda, Masakazu, 192
Huckleby family, 69–71
human rights, 45, 47–48, 101, 199, 219–220, 230
Hunter-Russell syndrome, 68, 242n49
Iacobelli, Pedro, 220
ice age, 10–11, 223
identity politics, 219–220
Iijima, Aiko, 224
Iijima, Nobuko, 8, 62
Independent Lectures on Pollution (ILP):
approach to, 18;
activism generated by, 40–41;
at Conference of Asians, 116–117;
formation, 39–40;
influence of, 223;
Jishu Kōza, 40, 123, 145, 256n165;
KOGAI, 122, 126, 132, 138, 139, 141;
and nuclear waste dumping, 150, 162;
Polluted Japan, 90–91, 110, 123, 124, 128, 218, 225;
and pollution export, 21, 63, 120;
publications, 40;
in Ride Against Uranium, 161;
transnational initiatives, 48, 122–123;
and UNCHE, 89–90, 91–92, 93–94
India, 2
industrial pollution crisis (1950s-1970s):
introduction, 7–8, 19, 24–26;
air and water quality in Osaka and Tokyo, 29;
awareness-raising books, 32–33;
early activism and victories, 30–31;
food poisoning, 26–27;
government action, 33–36;
as inspiration for activism, 4, 24;
Itai Itai disease, 29, 30;
media reportage, 31–32;
Minamata disease, 27–28;
pre-WWII beginnings, 26;
role of public intellectuals, 32–33;
scholarship on, 7, 17;
Inoue, Sumio, 121–122, 125, 126, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135
Institute for Himalayan Conservation, 225
International Citizens’ Conference to Consider the Global Environment and Japan’s Role, 185
internationalism, 217
International Symposium on Environmental Disruption, 100–101
Inthon, Sutatip, 126, 127, 128
invisible local, 200, 208. See also local
Ishimure, Michiko, 8, 32, 33, 40, 118
(p.310) Isomura, Eiichi, 112
Itai Itai disease, 29, 30, 35, 37, 93
Italy, 57–59
Ivory Coast, 106
Iwasaki, Shunsuke:
introduction, 180, 200;
approach to global problems, 181, 201–204, 207, 219;
background, 201;
on development, 204;
on NGOs, 203–204;
in People’s Forum, 186, 187, 201
Japan:
attitude towards civic groups, 195–196;
environmental protection legislation, 34, 35–36;
FDI in Asia, 115;
global significance of pollution, 1–2, 3;
harmonization approach, 34, 35, 190;
interpretation of victims’ pain, 8;
Meiji-era foreign trips, 79;
Ministry of Health and Welfare, 34, 35, 37, 47;
Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 35, 115;
municipal action on environment, 33–34;
national action on environment, 34–35;
Japan Center for a Sustainable Environment and Society (JACSES), 200
Japanese Citizens’ Earth Charter, 190
Japanese Citizens’ Rio Declaration, 199
Japanese civic activism:
boomerang effect of transnational engagement, 10, 13, 17, 225–226, 227–228, 229–230;
civic actors explanations, 227;
early history, 13–14;
at Earth Summit, 196–197, 199–200;
glocal approach, 197–198, 199;
government attitude towards, 195–196;
ice age, 10–11, 223;
ideational development, 13–15;
impact of pollution export on, 129;
institutional explanations, 226;
international norms explanations, 226–227;
Iwasaki on, 201, 202, 203–204;
resurgence of, 229;
scholarship on, 226;
transnational activism by, 22, 182–183, 184, 223–225
Japanese nongovernmental organizations, see Japanese civic activism
Japanese transnational environmental activism:
approach to, 3–4, 220–222;
anthropocentric approach, 25, 36;
and antinuclear movements, 161–162;
boomerang effect on activists, 13, 16–17, 55, 83, 110, 150, 220, 225–226, 228–229;
on development, 84;
on discrimination, 217–219;
during domestic ice age, 11–12;
and global-level environmentalism, 180–181, 208;
local focus, 6–7, 53, 111, 210, 212–213;
maturity of engagement, 22–23, 61–62;
motivation from guilt, 138;
need to strengthen, 128;
and nuclear waste dumping, 174–176;
vs. Old Maid logic, 121–122;
overview of development, 223–224;
and pollution exportation, 112–113, 116;
role of activists, 8–9, 114, 212;
time period of study, 19;
(p.311) Japan Federation of Bar Associations (JFBA), 24, 183, 186, 198–199, 200
Japan International Volunteer Center (JVC), 186, 201, 205, 229
Japan-Thai Youth Friendship Movement, 125
Japan Tropical Forest Action Network (JATAN), 182, 186, 205–206, 207, 229
Jasanoff, Sheila, 5–6, 11, 211, 215, 216
Jishu Kōza, 40, 123, 145, 256n165
Joint Declaration of the Asian People, 118–119
Kainō, Michitaka, 32, 36, 37, 38–39, 238n35, 238n42
Kanagawa Declaration, 187–189
Kanemi Rice Bran Oil poisoning, 27, 91–92, 92–93
Kansai Electric Power Company, 145
Kapp, Karl William, 100–101
Karaki, Kiyoshi, 62, 65, 72
Kawakami, Hajime, 95
Kawamoto, Teruo, 131
Kawana, Hideyuki, 159–160
Kawatetsu (Kawasaki Steel):
introduction, 114;
Filipino visit to Japan, 143–144;
Japanese visits to Philippines, 144–145;
lessons for activists, 145;
pollution and protests in Japan, 139–140;
pollution in Philippines, 142–143;
protest of Philippines relocation, 140–141, 143;
sintering plant in Philippines, 115–116, 141–142
Kayama, Ken, 63
Keck, Margaret E., 12–13, 55, 110, 150, 220, 225
Kenya, 2
Kesolei, Carol, 168
Kiko Forum, 182–183, 200, 208–210, 229
Kikuchi, Yumi, 193–194
Kinoshita, Tadayuki, 92
Kirby, Peter Wynn, 223
Klima Forum, 208–209
Kneese, Allen, 100
KOGAI (newsletter), 122, 126, 132, 138, 139, 141
Kōgai o Nogasuna! (publication), 131, 135, 136
Kōgai to Tōkyōto (publication), 39
Kugai Jōdo (Ishimure), 33
Kuroda, Ryōichi, 37
Kuroda, Yōichi, 182, 200, 205, 208
Kuroshio Tsūshin (newsletter), 164
Kuwabara, Shisei, 46
Latin American Action Committee, 146
Leary, Danton, 220
Leontief, Wassily, 100
The Limits to Growth (Club of Rome), 82–83, 94
local:
approach to global issues from, 6–7, 23, 111, 175–176, 180–181, 187–189, 203–204, 210, 216–217;
debate over role in globalism, 5–6, 214–215;
importance of Japanese experiences, 94;
invisible, 200, 208;
multiscalar politics of the, 212;
translocal, 52–53;
value of exchanges between communities, 78–79
Madhok, Sujata, 194
Maeda, Toshihiko, 163
Mahathir bin Mohamad, 207
Mainichi Shinbun, 159, 162
Malaysia, 123, 198, 205–208
(p.312) Marcos, Ferdinand, 116, 141–142, 144
Mariana Alliance Opposing Nuclear Waste Dumping, 158
Marston, Sally, 53
Martello, Marybeth Long, 5–6, 215, 216
Marubeni Corporation, 206
Marxist theory, 41–42, 44–45, 54, 82. See also socialism
Matsui, Yayori, 87, 92
Matsuoka, Nobuo, 123, 124
Matsuoka, Yūji, 136
McCormick, John, 86, 88, 110
media, 2–3, 31–32, 178
Mendiola, Felipe, 158, 166–167, 171
mercurochrome, 129–130. See also Toyama Chemical Company
mercury contamination:
in Finland, 59–60, 66–67;
geopolitics of, 78;
in grain fungicides, 56, 70;
in Italy, 57–59;
in New Mexico, 69–71;
rethinking of, 57, 67–68, 70–71;
in Sweden, 56;
symptoms of, 28, 59, 68, 69–70;
tendency to rationalize, 67;
Meyer, Geldens, 167–168, 169–171
Micronesia, 151–152, 167
Miller, Mick, 172
Minamata (Tsuchimoto documentary), 93, 124, 218
Minamata disease:
development of, 59;
discrimination against victims, 48;
effects on victims, 27–28, 91;
as focal point for activists, 28;
and Harada, 48–50;
media on, 2;
need for global dissemination of information, 68–69;
in Niigata Prefecture, 29, 34, 37;
official recognition of, 35, 57;
problem with symptom definition, 50–51, 67–68;
Smith’s photographs of, 61;
source of pollution, 28, 57;
and Ui, 46–47, 57;
victims on life with, 92. See also mercury contamination
Minamata kara no Sakebi (documentary), 101
Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW), 34, 35, 37, 47
Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), 35, 115
Minobe, Ryōkichi, 34, 38, 100
Mitsubishi Corporation, 115, 128, 146, 198
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, 135
Mitsui Corporation, 29, 128
Miyamoto, Ken’ichi:
corporate castle town term, 239n55;
in Czechoslovakia, 54;
development as activist, 32, 42–43, 51;
on discrimination, 75;
in Finland, 63–64;
initial hesitation about overseas trips, 61;
inspiration from Tanaka, 239n48;
on Japanese pollution, 3;
lawsuits worked on, 37;
lessons from transnational engagement, 55, 61–62, 70–71, 78, 79–80;
mercury focus, 66;
in New Mexico, 69, 70–71;
Osorubeki Kōgai, 2, 32–33, 44–45, 240n59;
overseas trip, 62;
in People’s Forum, 186;
rethinking of Minamata disease, 68;
“Shinobiyoru Kōgai,” 43–44
Miyazawa, Kiichi, 192
Morinaga Milk Company poisoning, 26, 27
Moyn, Samuel, 219
(p.313) Mulroney, Brian, 178
Mururoa Atoll, 157
Mutoh, Ichiyo, 223
Naess, Arne, 5, 32
Nagai, Susumu, 64, 65
Nagara River movement, 186, 194, 195
Nakagawa, Ichirō, 157, 171–172
Nakanishi, Junko, 62
Namibia, 145
Narain, Sunita, 192, 216
narrative fidelity, 151
nation-state, 60, 221
neocolonialism, 22, 87–88, 164–165, 175, 208, 228–229
Newberry, Peter, 73
New Mexico, 69–71
New York Times, 1, 32, 110
NHK, 132, 178
Niigata methyl mercury poisoning, 29, 34, 37. See also Minamata disease
Nikkei Sangyō Shinbun, 133
Nippon Chemical Company:
introduction, 114, 133;
company history, 135;
guilt over relocation, 138;
Japanese protests, 135–136;
motivation for protests, 136–138;
pollution by, 134–135;
relocation plan to South Korea, 133–134
nitrogen dioxide, 141
No Nukes News Japan (newsletter), 173, 174
Norman, E. H., 98
Northern Mariana Islands, 157–158, 159, 171
North-South problem, 87–88, 106, 107, 110, 185, 190, 209–210
Nuclear-Free Pacific Conference/Forum, 158–159, 175
nuclearism, 22, 152
nuclear power:
Fukushima disaster, 3, 273n77;
in Japan, 65–66, 155, 226;
pollution from, 21–22. See also antinuclear movements
nuclear power waste:
dangers of ocean dumping, 156;
disposal problem, 148;
European ocean dumping, 153;
Japanese disposal problem, 148–149;
Japanese ocean dumping, 153–155;
low-level, 149;
US ocean dumping, 152–153
nuclear power waste, Pacific dumping protests:
introduction, 21–22, 150–151;
Anastacio’s visit to Japan, 167–169;
foreign activists in Japan, 164–172;
international support for, 173;
Japanese protests, 162–163, 164;
Japanese response to Pacific Islands, 159–161;
Japanese visits to Pacific islands, 163–164;
lessons from transnational engagement, 151–152, 172, 174–176, 228–229;
Mendiola’s visit to Japan, 166–167;
Meyer’s visit to Japan, 167–168, 169–171;
as neocolonialism, 170, 172;
Pacific Islands protests,
nuclear power waste (cont.) 149–150, 155–156, 156–159, 160–161, 171–172;
proposal for dumping, 149, 155;
results from, 13, 173–174
nuclear testing, 157
Nuke Info Tokyo (newsletter), 224
(p.314) Oda, Makoto:
and Conference of Asians, 116, 117, 118, 119, 228;
“Heiwa o Tsukuru,” 15;
on Japanese aggression, 15, 114, 117, 119, 129, 228;
and Pacific Asia Resource Center, 223
Ogasawara Islands, 156, 160–161
Ōishi, Buichi, 83
Okita, Saburō, 99
Okuda, Takaharu, 127, 128
Old Maid logic, 121–122
O’Neill, Shorty, 173
Only One Earth (Ward and Dubos), 86, 179, 217
Osaka, 29, 37
Ōsawa, Hōsaku, 163
Osorubeki Kōgai (Miyamoto and Shōji), 2, 32–33, 44–45, 240n59
Our Common Future (Brundtland Commission), 108, 179–180, 191, 215
ozone depletion, 178, 184
Pacific Asia Resource Center (PARC), 150, 223
Pacific Daily News, 157, 164
Palau, see Belau
Park, Chung-hee, 116, 132
PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) poisoning, 27, 91, 92–93
Pearce, Fred, 192–193
Pekkanen, Robert, 10, 11, 226
Pempel, T. J., 115
People’s Forum:
introduction, 180;
on development, 187–189;
and Earth Summit (UNCED), 186–187, 190–191, 192;
establishment, 186;
Forum on Asian NGOs and the Global Environment, 186–187;
at Global Forum, 194;
Iwasaki’s leadership, 201;
Japanese Citizens’ Earth Charter, 190;
Japanese Citizens’ Rio Declaration, 199;
Kanagawa Declaration, 187–189;
local focus, 186, 187;
message of, 189–190;
participants in, 186;
principles of, 187;
resistance to globalizing discourses, 181;
on responsibility for pollution, 190
People’s Voice of Japan (publication), 189–190
Pharr, Susan, 226
PHD Association, 224–225
Philippines, 116, 141–142, 144. See also Kawatetsu
Polluted Japan (pamphlet), 90–91, 110, 123, 124, 128, 218, 225
Polluted Japan (Ui documentary), 57
polluter pays principle (PPP), 105
pollution:
discrimination as cause, 40, 49–50, 75–76, 213, 218;
enabled by government, 60;
as intentional, 91;
as negative externality, 103–104;
responsibility for, 82, 109, 190, 209–210
pollution disease, 35, 67–68, 76. See also Itai Itai disease; Minamata disease
pollution export:
introduction, 21, 114;
Asian reception of, 116;
awareness of, 13, 112, 138–139, 145, 146–147;
Citizens Rally to Protest Pollution Export to Asia, 145, 146–147;
as deliberate strategy, 115–116;
as focus of transnational activism, 112–113;
ILP initiatives, 122–123;
and Japanese aggression, 119–120, 120–121;
and Japanese civic activism, 129;
Japanese protests, 116, 131;
lessons learned from, 113–114, 133;
other examples, (p.315) 145–146;
responsibility for, 122;
to South Korea, 128–129;
population growth, 1, 82, 88, 192–193, 215, 219
Radkau, Joachim, 230
rain forest protection, 182, 205–208
Ralph Nader Group, 64–65
Reimann, Kim, 209, 226–227
Research Committee on Pollution (RCP):
introduction, 19–20, 25–26;
advice to governments, 37–39;
archives, 238n35;
diverse member approaches, 36–37;
on environmental human rights, 101;
establishment, 36;
grassroots network building, 39–40;
influence of, 36;
lawsuits participated in, 37;
lessons from transnational engagement, 52, 55, 78–80;
members, 36, 238n35;
MHW funding, 34;
motivation, 51;
overseas trips, 54;
priorities, 36, 83–84, 99;
research and ideological development, 41–42, 43, 45–46, 51;
Ride Against Uranium, 161
Rio Earth Summit, see Earth Summit
Robertson, Roland, 6
rooted cosmopolitanism, 8–9, 17, 52, 212
Rosario, David, 165, 166
Ruckelshaus, William D., 1
Russia, 153. See also Soviet Union
Sachs, Ignacy, 106
Salvatierra, Wilfredo, 142
Samoa, 158
Sancton, Thomas A., 178
Sasaki, Shigemitsu, 92–93
Sasaki-Uemura, Wesley, 14, 227
Sassen, Saskia, 83, 212
Satō, Eisaku, 154
Saunier, Pierre-Yves, 221
Sax, Joseph, 100, 101
sex tourism, 15, 224
Shaken reading group, 96
Shalpa Neer, 225
Shevardnadze, Eduard, 179
Shibata, Hiroko, 195
Shigeno, Toyoji, 62
Shimizu, Tomohisa, 131
Shinohara, Chika, 227
Shiva, Vandana, 216
Shizuoka Prefecture movement, 30–31
Shōji, Hikaru:
Osorubeki Kōgai, 2, 32–33, 44–45, 240n59;
in RCP, 36, 37, 61, 238n35
Shōwa Denkō Company, 29, 34, 57, 58
Shumacher, E. F., 32
Sikkink, Kathryn, 12–13, 55, 110, 150, 220, 225
Silent Spring (Carson), 2, 25, 218
sintering, 141
Smith, Aileen, 61
Smith, W. Eugene, 28, 61
socialism, 20, 54, 78. See also Marxist theory
South Africa, 145, 146
Soviet Union, 54, 153
(p.316) Spaceship Earth imagery, 2, 4–5, 81, 175, 213, 215
Stevenson, Adlai, 81
Stop Toyama, 131, 135
Strong, Maurice, 106, 191, 192, 194
Struck, Bernhard, 222
sulfur, 141
sustainable development:
central assumption of, 204;
criticism of, 179, 180, 190, 192, 199;
debates over, 78;
and Earth Summit, 191, 199;
in Founex Report, 106;
and Okita, 99;
in Our Common Future, 108, 179;
People’s Forum on, 187;
Tokyo Appeal against, 185;
and Tsuru, 85, 109
Sweden, 56–57, 87
Switzerland, 57, 64
Symposium on the Global Environment and Atmospheric Pollution, 184–185
Takagi, Jinzaburō, 171, 224, 273n77
Takahashi, Shinnosuke, 220
Takeshita, Noboru, 184
Tanaka, Kakuei, 32, 116, 141
Tanaka, Shōzō, 40, 239n48, 256n165
Tarrow, Sidney, 9, 18, 52, 183, 212
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 98–99
Thai Asahi Caustic Soda Company (TACS):
introduction, 114;
effects of protests, 128;
Japanese protests, 125, 126;
pollution by, 123–124;
Thai protests, 124–125, 126–128;
transnational cooperation against, 125–126
Thelen, David, 221
Thiele, Leslie Paul, 179–180, 216
Thomas, Julia Adeney, 3
Time magazine, 177, 178
Tinbergen, Jan, 106
Tinian Island, 166–167
Tōgo, Sōbei, 92
Tokyo, 1, 29, 34, 38, 39, 95
Tokyo Appeal, 185–186
Tokyo City Pollution Research Bureau, 38–39, 238n42
Tokyo Conference on the Global Environment and Human Responses toward Sustainable Development, 184
Tokyo Declaration, 86, 101
Tōkyō no Teigen (policy proposal), 100
Tokyo Shinbun, 62
Tokyo Symposium, 109
Tōkyōto Kōgai Bōshi Jōrei (Pollution prevention ordinance), 39
Tomura, Issaku, 117
Topaz (ship), 87, 153
Toronto Conference on the Changing Atmosphere, 178
Toshihiro, Takami, 225
Toyama Chemical Company:
introduction, 114;
Japanese protests, 131–132;
Japanese research on, 130–131;
Korean protests, 130;
pollution export plan, 129–130;
results from protests, 132–133;
transnational exchanges between protestors, 132
Tōyō Keizai Nippō, 129
translocal, 52–53. See also local
transnational activism/activists:
boomerang effect, 13, 55, 225–226;
(p.317) as connective tissue, 52, 182;
cycle of, 18;
definition, 9;
motivations, 211;
networks, 11–13, 17;
as political spaces, 12
transnational historical approach, 214, 220–222
transnationalism, 13, 52
Tsuchimoto, Noriaki, 92, 93, 124
Tsuchi no Koe, Tami no Koe, 256n165. See also Jishu Kōza
Tsukamoto, Hiroki, 144–145
Tsuru, Nobuo, 96, 97
Tsuru, Shigeto:
introduction, 94;
approach to activism, 36;
background, 95–98;
on development, 85, 95, 107–108, 109, 204;
early activism, 99–100;
on externalities, 103–104;
on Founex conference, 107;
on GNP, 102–103;
impact of, 32, 83, 109, 110–111;
International Symposium on Environmental Disruption, 100–101;
on moral duty of North, 109;
photograph of, 97;
on polluter pay principle, 105;
on RCP, 36;
Tokyo Declaration, 86, 101;
and Tokyo environmental protection, 38, 95, 100;
on transnational engagement, 61;
TVA Research Colloquium, 99;
at UNCHE, 20
TVA Research Colloquium, 99
Tyrell, Ian, 221
Ui, Jun:
approach to activism, 36–37;
at Dai Dong Conference, 89;
determination of, 46;
development as activist, 51;
on discrimination, 40, 48;
in Europe, 53–54;
in Finland, 59–60;
on Global Forum, 195;
on global significance of Japanese pollution, 1, 3, 8;
and ILP, 39–40;
importance of, 6, 32, 46, 83, 114, 212;
in Italy, 57–59;
on Japanese FDI in Asia, 115;
in KOGAI, 122;
Kōgai Genron, 40;
lawsuits worked on, 37;
lessons from transnational engagement, 55, 60;
mercury focus, 66;
message on pollution, 47–48, 104, 218;
MHW confrontation, 37, 47;
and Minamata disease, 46–47, 57, 68–69;
motivation of, 4, 19–20, 46–47, 48, 58–59;
on Osorubeki Kōgai (Miyamoto and Shōji), 44;
Polluted Japan, 57;
on pollution export, 112, 120;
scholarship by, 8;
on solidarity, 77;
in Sweden, 56–57;
in Switzerland, 57;
and UNCHE, 89–90, 92, 93;
on value of transnational engagement, 52, 78–79, 111;
on weak human rights consciousness, 47–48;
and WEIM, 60–61, 62
United Kingdom, 3
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), see Earth Summit
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE):
introduction, 20, 83, 85–86;
achievements, 3, 86, 110;
difficulties faced, 87–88;
ILP’s preparation for, 90, 91–92;
Japanese activists at,
United Nations Conference (cont.) 84–85, 91–94, 246n43;
Japanese government preparation for, 89–90;
on Japanese pollution export, 112;
lessons for Japanese activists, 110, 183;
Polluted Japan, 90–91;
related events and groups, 88–89;
suspicion from developing countries, 215;
and sustainable development, 108
(p.318) United States of America, 3, 64–65, 152–153
Upham, Frank, 10
Uzawa, Hirofumi, 104, 105, 238n35
victims:
advocacy groups, 24, 31;
and antinuclear power movements, 65–66, 273n77;
discrimination of, 48, 49–50;
government approach to, 8, 35–36;
and identity politics, 219–220;
as inspiration for activism, 4, 8, 25, 26, 36, 51, 83–84, 111;
lawsuits against polluters by, 30–31;
Pacific islanders’ appropriation of victimhood, 151–152, 165;
rethinking of victimhood, 4, 113–114, 117, 119, 147, 228, 230;
sense of solidarity for, 77;
support for transnational activism, 60
Vietnam War, 15, 87, 117, 135
Walker, Brett, 8
Ward, Barbara:
Only One Earth, 86, 179, 217
Weldon, Moses, 165, 218
whaling, 87, 183
White, Richard, 220
women’s groups, 15–16, 90, 224
Wong, Anny, 207–208
World Commission on Environment and Development, see Brundtland Commission
World Environmental Investigative Mission (WEIM):
introduction, 54;
and antinuclear power movements, 64–65;
in Finland, 63–64;
goals of, 62;
initial resistance to, 61;
lessons from, 66, 69, 70–71, 77–80;
mercury focus, 66;
message on pollution, 218;
in New Mexico, 69–71;
original vision for, 60–61;
places visited, 62, 63;
priorities of, 65, 66;
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), 182
Yahata Ironworks, 43
Yamada, Keizō, 143, 144, 163
Yamamoto, Kazuhiko, 192
Yamamura, Tsunetoshi, 183–184
Yasusato, Kiyonobu, 163, 164
Yokkaichi Asthma, 2, 28–29, 37, 42–43, 63–64
Yokohama City, 33
Yokoyama, Masaki, 161–162, 163, 173, 175
Yomiuri Shinbun, 178
Yoshida, Akira, 139
Yoshida, Masao, 168
Yoshida, Shigeru, 98