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Broken VoicesPostcolonial Entanglements and the Preservation of Korea's Central Folksong Traditions$

Roald Maliangkay

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780824866655

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: May 2018

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824866655.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM HAWAII SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hawaii.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hawaii University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HSO for personal use.date: 18 September 2021

(p.241) Index

(p.241) Index

Source:
Broken Voices
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
Aegukka (Song of Patriotism), 68, 191n92
airport art, 149
aksa (musician), 48, 186n161
An Ch’angho, 137
aniri, 131, 135
An Pich’wi, 21, 70–71, 89–90, 103–108, 114, 151, 196n109
Ansan (Peaceful Mountain), 87
antiques trade, 33, 37, 182–183n77, 183nn80–81
Apsan t’aryŏng (Song of the Front Mountain), 76, 78–80, 195n84
apsori, 60, 74–75, 82, 189n38
Ari, 121
Arirang, 17–18, 39, 41, 43, 53, 55, 66, 68–71, 96, 119, 121, 123, 131, 151, 190n82, 191n103
authenticity, 1–3, 9, 11–16, 18, 19, 22, 50–52, 63, 118, 155, 177n60. See also wŏnhyŏng (original form)
Buddhism, 18, 27–28, 34, 60, 62, 66, 77, 93, 102, 133–136, 140, 143, 189n51;
and entertainment, 66, 77, 79–85, 121, 138, 144, 159, 161, 190n78, 193n45, 206n112;
and property, 29–32, 184n107
Bunkazai hogohō (Cultural Properties Protection Law), 35–36
chaedam (witty chat), 105, 122
chajinmori, 59, 76
Chamunbak Troupe, 85
ch’ang (singing), 67, 101, 131, 189n38
Ch’angbu t’aryŏng, 86, 96, 128, 204
Changdaejang t’aryŏng, 122–123, 133
changdan. See rhythmic cycles
ch’angga, 67–68, 70–72
changgu/-go (hourglass drum), 59, 113
ch’anggŭk (traditional Korean opera), 11, 106, 140
Chang Haksŏn, 89, 106, 123, 124, 141
Chang Kŭmhwa, 125
Chang Sahun, 44–45, 58, 66, 69, 77, 79, 85–86, 122, 132–133, 185n126
Chang t’aryŏng, 127
Chang Yangsŏn, 138
chapchapka (miscellaneous chapka), 96–97, 105
Chebiga (Swallow Song), 96–98
chech’ang, 60, 189n38
Chejŏn (Making a Sacrifice), 120
Cheju minyo, 39
China, 2, 28–29, 41, 64, 77, 80, 96, 182n77, 182n80, 197n140
Chipchangga (Grabbing the Stick Song), 97–98
cho (mode), 58
Ch’oe Chŏngshik, 88, 103–105, 109, 114, 122, 196n97, 198n147
Ch’oe Kyŏngshik, 88, 122, 127–128
Ch’oe Sŏngnyong, 118
(p.242) Ch’oe Sun’gyŏng, 138
chogyo (assistant teacher of graduates), 48
Ch’ohan’ga (Song of the Ch’o and Han), 120
Cho Kijun, 100, 122–123
Chŏkpyŏkka (Song of the Red Cliff), 96
Ch’ŏllima undong (Galloping Horse Movement), 10
Cho Moran, 98, 122
Ch’ŏngch’un’ga (Song of the Bloom of Youth), 69, 70, 128, 191n103
Chongdae, 84
Chongmyo cheryeak (Rite to Royal Ancestors), 45, 47
Chongno kwŏnbŏn, 103
Ch’ŏngnyong (Blue Dragon), 86–87;
Ch’ŏngnyong Temple, 77, 80, 83, 87
Chŏng sori (Song of Affection), 66
Ch’ŏng Troupe, 85
Chŏng Tŭngman, 76, 85, 87–90, 99, 123, 128, 150, 196n97, 196n104, 196n107
Chŏn’guk minsok yesul kyŏngyŏn taehoe (National Folk Arts Contest), 43, 93, 154, 203n46
chŏnmun wiwŏn (expert members), 40
chŏnsu changhaksaeng (special scholarship students), 48, 186n160
chŏnsu kyoyuk chogyo (assistant teacher of graduates), 48
Ch’oriptong (A Young Man with a Straw Hat), 68
Chōsen hōmotsu koseki meishō tennenkinenbutsu hozonrei (Law for the Preservation of Natural Monuments, Places of Scenic Beauty and Historic Interest, and Treasures in Korea), 32
Chōsen sōtokufu (Government-General of Korea), 26–28, 31, 33, 40, 55, 181n60, 184n96
Chōsen sōtokufu hakubutsukan (Museum of the Government-General of Korea), 25, 33
Chosŏn kamudan (Korean Singing and Dancing Group), 128
Chosŏn kamu yŏn’guhoe (Korean Research Committee for Song and Dance), 88
Ch’ŏyongmu (Dance of Ch’ŏyong), 47
ch’uimsae, 132
Chujak (Red Bird), 87
Ch’u Kyoshin, 100
chul t’agi (tightrope walking), 49
Chunggŏri, 79
chungjungmori, 76
chungmori, 59, 76, 122, 131
Ch’unhyangga (Song of Ch’unhyang), 96–98, 106, 133
Ch’up’unggam pyŏlgok (Special Song of the Feeling of the Autumn Breeze), 120, 141
Ch’urin’ga (Boating Song), 97–98
Chusan (Main Mountain), 87
Chu Subong, 109
chwach’ang, 67, 96
Confucianism, 6–8, 18, 27, 29, 31, 64, 82, 119, 179n11, 180n22, 209n8;
and folksongs, 22, 57, 60–63, 94
cultural cringe, 5, 18, 176n17
Cultural Heritage Administration, 39, 41–42, 44, 106, 141–142, 155, 185–186n133
cultural policy, 2–9, 18–19, 175n6;
of Japanese colonial government, 23–33, 55, 151, 176n20
Cultural Properties Protection Law (Munhwajae pohopŏp), 6–7, 10, 15, 22, 36–37, 42–43, 46, 48, 53, 56, 91, 154, 186n153
dozoku, 27, 65
enka, 68, 71
folksong, 2–3, 22, 122;
change in, 15, 19, 21, 67–72, 95–96, 115, 117–118, 121, 146, 150, 156;
definition of, 52–57, 146, 197n136;
characteristics, 57–63;
government recognition of, 9, 13–14, 16–18, 38–39, 41, 43–47, 96, 98, 117, 135, 156;
terminology, 63–67, 190n61;
transmission, 89–90, 106, 107, 108, 111, 113–114, 118, 129, 132, 148, 152
(p.243) gender, 15–16, 18, 51, 57, 60–61, 72, 94–95, 115–116, 151
Haktoga (Student Association Song), 68
Ha Kyuil, 102, 104, 109
hanbok, 2, 41, 60, 94–95, 132, 149
Han’gang Troupe, 85
Han’guk kach’ang taegye, 89
Han’guk kubi munhak taegye (Outline of Korean Oral Literature), 57–58, 188n25
Han’guk kugak hyŏphoe (Society for Korean Traditional Music), 90
Han’guk kyŏng/sŏdo ch’angak taegye (A Compendium of the Vocal Music from Korea’s Kyŏnggi and Western Provinces), 113
Han’guk minyo taejŏn (Great Compilation of Korean Folksongs), 153–154
Han’guk minyo yŏn’guhoe, 89, 107
Han Int’aek, 85
Han Kyŏngshim, 123
Hannam yegi kwŏnbŏn, 103
Han obaengnyŏn, 68–70, 108, 191n103
Hansŏng kwŏnbŏn, 103, 199n173
hapch’ang, 60, 189n38
Ha Sunil, 85
Hojo Tari Troupe, 84
Homi kŏri, 81
Hong Nanp’a, 68
Hŏ Tŏksŏn, 84, 124, 137
Hŭimangga (Song of Hope), 71
Hŭngboga (Song of Hŭngbo), 97
Hŭng t’aryŏng (Sighing Song), 76
Hwach’o sagŏri, 76, 193n19
Hwang Kiun, 85
Hwang Yongju, 21, 65–66, 75–77, 79, 81, 87, 90–92, 98, 110, 113, 152, 204n48
hwimori, 96, 98, 198n147
hyangga (songs of home), 54
Hyŏn Ch’ŏl, 128
Hyŏngjangga (Song of the Torturing Stick), 97–98
Important Intangible Cultural Properties, 17, 60, 72, 76, 90, 95, 117, 138, 186n160;
category of, 10, 37–39, 41, 46–50, 73, 106;
government report on, 10–11, 13, 40, 42–46, 48, 86, 103, 114–115, 139, 141, 147, 185n126, 200n210, 201n212
Im Tonggwŏn, 45, 48, 53, 59–61, 65–67, 70, 85, 94, 133, 139, 155, 202n8
in’gan munhwajae (human treasures), 37, 94
Ip’al ch’ŏngch’un’ga (Sweet Sixteen), 141
ipch’ang (standing songs), 67, 74
isuja (graduate), 48
Jiang Taigong, 171, 209n11
Jisatsurei (Temple Act), 30–32, 184n107
Juche, 10
Kabo kyŏngjang (Kabo Reform), 24
Kaeguri t’aryŏng (Song of the Frog), 76, 85
kagok (lyric songs), 66, 100–102, 104, 109, 120, 122, 124–125, 141, 196n97
Kamŭng/Kamang, 166, 209n6
Kanggangsullae, 17–18, 38, 43, 47, 60–61
kasa (narrative songs), 66, 89, 91, 96, 98, 100–102, 104, 112, 122–125, 141, 196n97, 197n139, 202n8
Kashiryŏmnikka (Are You Leaving?), 68
kayo, 56, 72, 110, 192n114
kibu (male partner/agent), 109
Kim Ch’ilsŏng, 124, 141
Kim Chongjo, 138
Kim Chŏngyŏn, 119, 124–125, 130, 141, 148, 151, 203n40, 204n48, 207n143
Kim Ch’ŏnhŭng, 40, 44, 47, 90, 114
Kim Chuho, 133, 138
Kim Chuksa, 124, 141
Kim Ch’unhong, 123
Kim Hyŏn’gyu, 81, 204n72
Kim Inshik, 68
Kim Kwanjun, 135, 137, 141
Kim Kyech’un, 128, 138
kimmaegi sori (weeding songs), 66
Kim Milhwaju, 123
Kim Pyŏnggyu, 84
Kim Sŏngmin, 133, 139
Kim Sunt’ae, 76, 123, 204n72
Kim T’aebong, 76, 88
Kim Tuch’il, 128
Kim Ŭngnyŏl, 84
Kim Yonghun, 133, 139, 207n149
(p.244) kip’ŭn sarang, 100–101, 105, 109, 123
kisaeng, 50, 68, 71, 81, 86, 97, 106, 116–117, 150, 191n99, 195n73, 199n167;
institute, 101–104, 109, 151;
training, 112, 122–123, 127–128, 138
Kkoktugakshi norŭm (puppet play), 42, 194n63
kkwaenggwari, 48
kŏllipp’ae, 81
Kombo t’aryŏng (Song of the Pockmarked One), 98
Kongch’ŏga, 129
kongch’ŏng (public posts), 101
Kongmyŏngga (Song of Kongmyŏng), 120
Koseki oyobi ibutsu hozon kisoku (Regulations for the Preservation of Ancient Remains and Relics), 31–33, 183n82
Kosŏng nongyo (Farming Songs from Kosŏng), 39, 43
Kugag-ŭi hyanggi (The Fragrance of Traditional Korean Music), 90
Kugak ch’anyang kasu hyŏphoe (Association for Singers of Praise in Korean Traditional Music), 63
Kugak yŏnyesa (Korean Traditional Music Entertainment Company), 89, 128
Kuhwangshil chaesanpŏp (Law of the Property of the Former Royal Household), 34
Kŭkpon paebaengi kut (Ritual for Paebaengi Drama), 140
kukp’ung (national custom), 64
Kŭmgangsan t’aryŏng (Ballad of Mount Kŭmgang), 109, 198n147
Kungnaebu kamubyŏlgam (Royal House’s Special Inspector for Music and Dance), 123
Kungnip kugagwŏn (National Gugak Center), 44–45, 126, 152, 154, 195n84
kutkŏri, 59, 76, 121–122, 131
Kwach’ŏn Panga Tari Troupe, 85, 88
kwangdae, 74, 81, 135
Kwanggyo kwŏnbŏn, 103
Kwansanyungma (The Kwan Mountain Where Horses’ Hoofs Clatter Loudly), 120, 202n15, 202n25
Kwanuhŭi (Watching the Comic Folk Play), 66
kwŏnbŏn. See kisaeng : training
kyobangch’ŏng (deputy offices), 101
Kyōkō zaisan kanri kitei (Regulations for the Management of Property of Schools Connected to Confucian Temples), 31
Kyŏngballim, 80
Kyŏngbokkung t’aryŏng (Song of Kyŏngbok Palace), 76
Kyŏnghwa kwŏnbŏn, 103
Kyŏngjo (mode of Kyŏnggi province), 58
Kyŏng sagŏri (A Sunny Crossroads), 80
maettol sori (milling songs), 66
mandam, 105. See also chaedam (witty chat)
menarijo, 58
minjok (the people), 37, 64
minjung, 65
Minjung movement, 6–8, 19, 53, 56, 62, 132, 187n6
minsok charyo (folk materials), 36, 38
minzoku, 27, 35–37, 184n99
Miryang arirang (Arirang from Miryang), 123
Miryang paekchung nori (Ghost Festival of Miryang), 49
mogap (leader), 75, 83
Monggŭmp’o t’aryŏng (Song of Monggŭm Port), 121
mudong (dancing boys), 84, 194n63
muhyŏng munhwajae (intangible cultural properties), 10, 36, 38
Muhyŏng munhwajae pojŏn mit chinhŭng-e kwanhan pŏmnyul (Act on the Preservation and Promotion of Intangible Cultural Heritage), 46, 186n153
Muk Kyewŏl, 21, 49, 70–71, 96, 99, 103–104, 106–112, 114, 142, 150, 197n137
Mun Ch’anggyu, 138
Munhwajaech’ŏng. See Cultural Heritage Administration
Munhwajae kwalliguk (Cultural Properties Management Office), 35, 114
(p.245) Munhwajae pohopŏp. See Cultural Properties Protection Law
Munhwajae wiwŏnhoe (Cultural Properties Committee), 10, 19, 39–40, 42–50, 86, 90, 103, 114–115, 139, 141, 146, 177n60, 185n122, 185n129, 207n149
Munhwajae yŏn’guso (Cultural Properties Research Institute), 39
Munhwa yesul chinhŭngpŏp (Culture and Arts Promotion Law), 6
museum, 1, 14, 34, 154–155, 175n1, 184n94;
under colonial government, 25–26, 28, 31, 33, 37, 40
Nakhwa yusu (Blossoms Fall, Water Flows), 129
Nalt’ang Troupe, 85
namdo, 15, 58, 74, 76, 121
Namdo tŭl norae (Field Songs from the Southern Provinces), 39
Namsadangp’ae (male temple group troupe), 84, 86, 194n63
Nanbongga, 118, 121–122, 204n55
National Treasures, 29, 33, 35, 38, 39
Nodŭl kangbyŏn (The Nodŭl Riverside), 68, 70, 108
Nollyang/-lyŏng, 76–78, 85–87
nongak (farmers’ music), 41, 49, 94
norae, 63, 66–67
North Korea, 4–5, 9–10, 17, 19, 41–42, 95, 117–118, 125, 133, 148, 183n87, 192n1, 206n126, 208n158;
cultural policy of, 10, 17, 42, 117–118
Obongsan t’aryŏng (Song of Mount Obong), 122
Odolttogi, 58
ŏkkae ch’um (shoulder dance), 121
ŏnmori, 131
O Pongnyŏ, 117, 125–127, 141, 152
Ŏrang t’aryŏng (Fishermen’s Song), 127
ŏtchungmori, 121
Ŏu yadam (ŏu’s Historical Tales), 137
Paekho (White Tiger), 87
Paekkot t’aryŏng (Song of the Pear Blossom), 121
Paek Shinhaeng, 138
Paennorae (Boat Song), 129
Paeogae Majŏn Tari Troupe, 85
Pak Ch’un’gyŏng, 100, 103, 123
Pak Ch’unjae, 80, 88, 99–100, 103, 122
Pak Chunyŏng,147, 153
Pak Insŏp, 122
Pak Nokchu, 102, 104
Pak Puyong, 68, 98
Pak Samsoe, 85
pallim ch’um, 75
pangan sori (room songs), 101
Panga t’aryŏng (Milling Song), 66, 76
Pangmulga (Song of Fancy Goods), 97
p’ansori (folk dramatic song), 47, 66, 99, 102, 104–106, 178n85, 188n30, 203n31, 203n33;
and Sant’aryŏng, 74–75, 86, 89, 93, 96–97;
and Paebaengi kut, 131, 133, 135–136, 146, 206n111
P’an yŏmbul (staged Buddhist chant), 82, 86–87
Park Chung Hee, 3–8, 36–37, 44–45
Pawi t’aryŏng (Song of the Rock), 98
pomul (treasures), 33, 38
Pongsan t’alch’um (Pongsan Mask Dance), 138, 141
Poryŏm, 76
postcolonialism, 5, 16, 18, 20, 156
poyuja (holder), 10, 37, 47–48, 90
poyuja hubo (future holder), 48, 90
ppongtchak (boom tchak), 72
Ppuri kip’ŭn namu (The Deep-rooted Tree), 11–12, 155
puk (barrel drum), 94, 135
P’ungdŭngga (Great Harvest Song), 109
p’ungmul (farmers’ music), 8, 47
Pyŏngshin nanbongga, 123
P’yŏngyangga (Song of Pyongyang), 97–98, 195
P’yŏngyang kyŏnggaega (Sketch Song of Pyongyang), 141
rhythmic cycle, 59, 76–77, 79–81, 99, 143, 202n20
Sabalga (Rice Bowl Song), 128
Sach’ŏlga Song of the Four Seasons), 96
sadanggol (sadang camp), 83, 194n55
sadangp’ae (temple group troupe), 81–87, 89, 93
Saemaŭl undong (New Village Movement), 7–8, 176n26
Saengmae chaba (Catching a Falcon), 98
Sagŏri, 76, 85
Sagyech’uk, 100
Samhwa kwŏnbŏn, 103, 110
Sangyŏ sori (Bier Carriers’ Song), 60, 122, 129
San yŏmbul, 121, 139
sasŏl shijo, 98
semach’i, 77, 79, 121, 131
shaman, 43, 102, 129, 146, 189n51;
practice, 7–8, 18, 27, 30, 94, 131–135, 137, 140, 205n85;
ritual, 41, 62, 104, 148, 165–172, 193n40;
song, 66–67, 86, 135, 209n11
shibi chapka, 67, 96, 98, 113
shich’ang, 120
shijo (sung poems), 66, 88–91, 100–102, 105, 109, 112, 120, 123, 127, 141
Shimch’ŏngga (Song of Shimch’ŏng), 136, 206n111
shinawi, 47
shin minyo (new folksong), 68–71, 99, 109, 112, 127, 141, 198n147
Shin Nakt’aek, 84, 195nn72–73
Shin Pulch’ul, 68, 105, 128, 136, 204n60
Shin seikatsu undō (New Life Movement), 7
Shipchangga (Song of Ten Sticks), 97
So Ch’unhyangga, 97
Soebunggu Troupe, 85
sogo, 75, 85, 87
sogyo, 64
sŏnch’ang, 60, 189n38
Sŏngbuk-tong Troupe, 85
Sŏng Kyŏngnin, 40, 45, 114, 135, 139, 159
Song Man’gap, 98, 104
songsŏ, 109–110, 120
Song Sŏkha, 56, 82–83
Sŏnyuga (Boating Song), 97–98, 195n73
sorikkun, 54
So Wanjun, 85, 88
sshirŭm (wrestling), 42
Sŭngmu (Monk’s Dance), 48
Sŭri sŭri pom param (The Soft Spring Breeze), 68
Sushimga (Song of Sorrow), 58, 67, 118–123, 131, 138
Ta-dong chohap, 102
Taedong kwŏnbŏn, 102
Taejŏng kwŏnbŏn, 102, 199n174
t’aekkyŏn, 49, 177n60
T’aep’yŏngga (Song of Peace), 112, 198n147
Talkŏri (Monthly Matters), 97–98
tan’ga (ballad), 64, 86, 202n28
Tapkyo, 84–85
t’aryŏng. See folksong: terminology
Tchanji Troupe, 85, 93
todŭri, 98, 121
Tohwa t’aryŏng (Peach Blossom Song), 76
tokch’ang, 60, 189n38
Tondollari, 17–18, 41, 61, 68
Tongi kimil, 135
Tongmak Troupe, 85
t’ongsok, 65, 69, 70, 95–96, 98, 192n109, 198n147
Toraji t’aryŏng (Bellflower Song), 80
t’osok, 65, 69, 95–96, 188n23
tourism, 2, 11, 18, 22, 31, 33, 37, 102, 150, 157
trot, 71, 105, 192n114
Ttuksŏm Troupe, 85
Twissan t’aryŏng (Song of the Rear Mountain), 76, 79–81, 87, 193n23, 195n84
Ŭit’aek, 84
UNESCO, 14, 17, 41, 43, 46, 146, 186n153
Wangshimni Troupe, 85, 128
Wang Subok, 69, 70
Wŏlsŏn, 84, 97, 195n73
wŏnhyŏng (original form), 10, 12, 142
Wŏn Kyŏngt’ae, 111–112, 201n212
Yanagi Muneyoshi/Sōetsu, 30, 37, 185n111
Yanbian, 41, 118, 140, 207n151
(p.247) yangban (aristocracy), 88–89, 101, 140
Yangsando, 70, 76
Yang Soun, 132, 138, 141
Yech’ŏn t’ongmyŏng nongyo (Farming Songs from T’ongmyŏng-dong in Yech’ŏn County), 39, 43
Yi Chŏngnyŏl, 123
Yi Ch’unhŭi, 108
Yi Ch’unmok, 124, 203n40
Yi Hwaja, 69, 71, 191n99
Yi Hwajungsŏn, 102, 104
Yi Insu, 127, 138, 139
Yi Kyewŏl, 122
Yi Mansŏk, 139
Yi Myŏnggil, 85, 128
Yi Nŭnghwa, 30, 82–83
Yi Pandohwa, 106, 123
Yi Pohyŏng, 45, 58, 66, 69, 74, 82–83, 86, 93, 115, 122, 135, 139, 141, 159, 186n138, 193n19, 195n72, 197n136, 203n29
Yi Sohyang,107, 196n109
Yi Sora, 45, 155
Yi Sŭngch’ang, 124
Yi T’oegye, 119
Yi Tongshik, 85
Yi Tongun, 85
Yi Yusaek, 122
yŏkkŭm, 120
Yŏmbul (a Buddhist chant), 121, 127
yonanuki, 68, 191n93
Yŏngbyŏn’ga (Song of the Peaceful Border), 120
Yongsan Samgae Troupe, 85
yuhaengga (pop songs), 69, 71–72, 155
Yu Kaedong, 76, 100, 103, 122, 193n42
Yukchabaegi, 58, 76
Yukch’irwŏl hŭrin nal (Cloudy Days in June and July), 98
Yusan’ga (Picnic Song), 96, 99–100
Zhuge Liang, 167, 209n8