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Architects of Buddhist LeisureSocially Disengaged Buddhism in Asia's Museums, Monuments, and Amusement Parks$

Justin Thomas McDaniel

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780824865986

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: September 2017

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824865986.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM HAWAII SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hawaii.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hawaii University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HSO for personal use.date: 11 July 2020

(p.215) Index

(p.215) Index

Source:
Architects of Buddhist Leisure
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press

Page numbers in bold indicate illustrations.

Abe, Stanley, 160
Abuja (Nigeria) city plan, Tange design of, 66
accumulation, acts of, 16
affect, study of, 23–24
Afghanistan, giant Buddhas of Bamiyan in, 7, 100
Ali, Maksood, 69, 73–74
Allchin, F. R., 57–58
Amida Buddha, Yobiko Daibutsu of, 7
Amnuai Kantian, 142
amusement parks, 7, 8, 11, 20, 171;
Fairy Stream Amusement Park, 4, 23, 30–35, 31, 34;
motives for visits to, 16;
Tiger Balm Gardens, 82;
Wiriyaphan family projects as, 95, 100
Ancient City, 84, 87–91, 92, 95, 99–100, 191–192n.7;
family visit to, 89;
guidebooks to, 90, 192n.9;
lack of authenticity, 89–90, 99
Ando, Tadao, 26, 41, 122–126, 129, 181n.47, 195n.46
Anek Kusala Sala (Wihan Sien), 101, 102–103, 193n.25
Ang Thong, Thailand, Wat Muang in, 107–112
architects, 25–26. See also specific architects
architecture:
distractions in, 22;
experience and memory of, 23;
ongoing changes in biography of, 27–28;
Tange philosophy of metabolism in, 36, 40, 67, 72, 74, 77
Arnold, Edwin, 77
Asian Civilizations Museum (Singapore), 148, 152
Asia Pacific Exchange Cooperation Foundation (APECF), 75–77
Avalokiteśvara statues and images, 1, 107, 198n.19. See also Guanyin statues and images;
at Buddhist Tooth Relic Temple, 141, 143, 144, 145, 147;
at Haw Par Villa, 83;
at University of Pennsylvania museum, 132
Avery Island Buddha image, 162–165, 163, 202nn.4–5
Awaji Shima, Japan, 14;
Kannon statue on, 4;
Water Temple on, 123–124, 126
Aw Boon Haw, 82
Aw Boon Par, 82
Baker, Chris, 177n.4
Bali, Garuda Wisnu Kencana Cultural Park in, 17–18, 18
Bamiyan Buddhas, 7, 100
Bangkok-Japanese Cultural Center, 38, 184n.24
Bangladeshi monks at Lumbini Park, 47, 47–48, 49
Basu, R. K., 57, 61, 62
Beach of the Gods water park, 32, 33, 34, 34
Beautiful Indonesia in Miniature Park, 87–88
Beppu Daibutsu, 7
Bernard, Shane, 164, 202nn.4–5
Bezeklik Cave Temples Restoration, 155
Bharne, Vinayak, 41–42
Bhiam Bunyachot, 87
(p.216) Biển Tiên Ðồng (Beach of the Gods), 32, 33, 34, 34
birthplace of Buddha, 45;
discovery of, 56;
Tange design of park and memorial for, 27, 36, 38, 40, 48–49, 55–57 (See also Lumbini)
Black House, 120–121
Bodh Gaya:
as awakening site, 56, 78;
as pilgrimage and tourist site, 4, 68, 78, 190n.103
Bodiford, William, 3
Bowen, John, 169
Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum, 135–148;
authenticity of tooth relic at, 197n.13;
construction of, 137, 138, 138;
costs and income of, 139–140, 141;
display of tooth relic at, 142–143;
exterior of, 139, 139, 198n.20;
Nagapuspa Buddhist Culture Museum at, 20, 143–144, 154, 156, 161;
Naga trees planted at, 139;
source of tooth relic at, 136–137;
wax and resin images at, 141, 198n.21
Buddhist Culture Museum, 20, 143–144, 154, 156, 161
Bunleua Sulilat, 121–122
Burma:
Khemarattha Standing Buddha in, 177n.4;
Laykyun Setkyar Buddha in, 4;
stone canon at Kuthodaw monastery in, 79
Calvino, Italo, 27
Cambodian monastery at Lumbini, 50, 51
cave of Buddhist hells at Haw Par Villa, 83–84
Centro Ecuménico Khun Iam, 115, 116
Chan, Melissa, 77
Chan Buddhism, 144–145
Chapel of Rokkozan, 124–125, 125
Chiang Mai, Thailand, 12, 88, 142
Chiang Rai, Thailand, 14, 88, 140;
Wat Rong Khun monastery in, 118–120, 119
children:
anime/manga characters popular with, 7;
learning about Buddhism, 180n.25;
as visitors to Buddhist leisure places, 16, 147
China:
Dunhuang Buddhist theme park in, 77;
interest in development and management of Lumbini, 75–77, 190n.95;
Leshan Buddha in, 1, 78, 100;
Shi Fa Zhao influenced by, 138–139, 140, 141, 144–145, 147;
and Wihan Sien Chinese museum, 102–103;
Wiriyaphan family influenced by, 91, 92;
Zen sect in, 43
Church of the Light, 124, 125–126
Church on the Water, 124
comparative projects and gestures, 166–169
complex adaptive systems, 6, 25, 36
complicated systems, compared to complex systems, 25
Conder, Josiah, 37, 183n.16
conversation places in Tange designs, 40, 42
Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret), 183n.14, 184n.32, 185n.48;
Ando influenced by, 123;
Tange influenced by, 36–37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43
Cowell, David, 63
Crystal Grotto (Tennessee), 192n.8
Cueppers, Christoph, 51, 72, 187n.70
Culin, Stewart, 132, 196n.5
Dahal, Puspa Kamal (Prachanda), 75, 76
daibutsu, 7, 8;
Kamakura Daibutsu, 4, 7;
Nagoya Daibutsu, 158, 159;
Ushiku Daibutsu, 1–2
Daikannon of Sendai, 1–4, 2, 22, 28, 29, 78, 101, 173
Dech Sanitwong, M. L., 92
Dhakal, D. P., 67–68
Dharma Drum Mountain monastery, 13
Dharmapala, Angrika, 56, 77–78
Dietz, Joel, 196n.5
Ðinh Văn Vui, 33
distractions, 22, 129
Double-Bell House of Makita, 37, 183n.20
Dunham, Mikel, 76
Dunhuang Buddhist theme park, 77
East Monastic Zone of Lumbini Park, 46, 49–51, 66
ecumenical parks and sites, 5–6, 17–24, 81, 82–130, 135, 161;
of Ando, 122–126;
of Bunleua Sulilat, 121–122;
Guanyin Ecumenical Center, 115;
Haw Paw Villa, (p.217) 82–84;
hell parks, 113–114;
Khao Chi Chan, 101–102, 102;
Moga Buddhist Museum, 115–118, 116;
of Shi Fa Zhao, 6, 27, 136, 140, 143, 144, 145, 147;
similarities of, 169–172;
Somdet To statues, 104–105;
of Sommerville, 134;
of Suchat, 105–107;
Suối Tiên (Fairy Stream) Amusement Park as, 32–33, 35;
of Tange, 6, 36, 54;
of Thawan Duchanee, 120–121;
Wat Muang, 107–112;
Wat Yansangwararam, 101;
Wihan Sien, 102–103;
of Wiriyaphan family, 6, 84–100;
of Woon Wee Teng, 151
Ee Tiang Hwee, at Buddha Tooth Relic Temple, 135–148, 198n.19
Ehime, Japan, 14, 124
elephant statue, Erawan, 84–85, 92–94, 93, 100, 129
empire-making, 18–19
ensembliers, 22, 169, 181n.34
Erawan Elephant, 84–85, 92–94, 93, 100, 129
Eternal Peace Flame at Lumbini Park, 46
Facebook, 9, 13, 21
failure of Buddhist leisure and tourist sites, 4–5, 25;
at Lumbini, 54, 67, 75
Fairy Stream Amusement Park, 4, 23, 30–35, 31, 34
Feener, Michael, 28
Feroci, Corrado, 80, 120
Floating Island, 193n.29
Fo Guang Shan, 81, 179n.20, 189n.86
Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT), 78
From Dawn to Dusk: The Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum (Shi Fa Zhao), 146
Führer, Anton, 56
Fukushima, Japan, 1
Gabaude, Louis, 148–149
Garuda Wisnu Kencana Cultural Park, 17–18, 18
Gell, Alfred, 169
German Tara Foundation, Lotus Stupa at Lumbini sponsored by, 52–53, 70–71, 71, 72
Glancey, Jonathan, 35
Glass Temple, 127–129, 128, 195n.53
Goenka Meditation Center at Lumbini Park, 51
Goh Aik Sai, 135, 144, 148
Goh Ee Choo, 141
Golden Pagoda Temple, 136, 137
golden toilet facilities at Wat Rong Khun, 120
Gombrich, E. H., 22–23
Great Drigung Kagyud Lotus Stupa at Lumbini Park, 52–53, 70–71, 72
“great men” of history, 24, 26
Gregg, Melissa, 23
Gropius, Walter, 39, 43, 184n.25
Guanyin Ecumenical Center, 115, 116
Guanyin Inter-Religious Park, 105–107, 193n.27
Guanyin statues and images, 22, 107, 193–194n.29;
Awaji Kannon, 4;
in Guanyin Ecumenical Center, 115;
in Guanyin Inter-Religious Park, 107;
in Haw Par Villa, 83;
near Wat Muang entrance, 112;
Sendai Daikannon, 1–4, 2, 22, 28, 29, 78, 101, 173;
in Suối Tiên (Fairy Stream) Amusement Park, 30, 32;
in University of Pennsylvania museum, 132
Habermas, Jürgen, 10–11
“Haiku Effect” in designs of Ando, 123
Hamaguchi, Ryuichi, 38
Hansen, Miriam, 16
Harmsworth Park (London), 81
Hasegawa, Kiyoshi, 173–175
Haw Par Villa, 82–84, 83
Hay, Jonathan, 23
Hayami, Yoko, 128, 129, 195n.54
hell parks, 11, 27, 113–114, 129–130, 191nn.1–2;
at Haw Par Villa, 83–84;
at Wat Muang, 107, 109, 111, 112, 113;
at Wat Sang Saen Suk, 113
Hewitt, George, 27
Higashi Hongan-ji monastery, 154, 155;
Reception Office museum in, 152–153
Hiroshima Peace Memorial, 38, 39, 74
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 7, 40;
Fairy Stream (Suối Tiên) Amusement Park in, 4, 23, 30–35, 31, 34;
Jade Emperor Pagoda in, 113, 114
(p.218) Holt, John, 128, 129, 195n.54
Horiguchi, Sutemi, 37
Huizinga, Johan, 15
Huỳnh Ðồng Tuấn, 33, 34
Hwang, Soonil, 115
If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler (Calvino), 27
in-between agents, architects as, 25–26
India:
Bodh Gaya as pilgrimage and tourist site in, 4, 68, 78, 190n.103;
origin and history of Buddhism in, 156, 200n.46
interdependence and interconnections, 24–25
International Buddhist College, 21
International Gotami Nun’s Temple in Lumbini Park, 50, 51
International Scientific Steering Committee, 64
Internet/web presence, 7, 9, 13, 172, 179n.19, 181n.48, 191n.48;
of Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum, 199n.32;
of ecumenical sites, 21;
of monasteries, 13, 21, 179n.19;
of Thawan Duchanee, 120, 194–195n.42
Ireland, Asian gardens and Buddha images in, 165, 165
Irisawa, Takashi, 154, 200n.42
Ise Shrine, 42, 43
Iwai, Shunpei, 154
Jade Emperor Pagoda, 113, 114
Japan, 7–8;
Ando designs of buildings in, 122–126;
Awaji Kannon in, 4;
daibutsu in, 4, 7, 158, 159;
Glass Temple in, 127–129, 128;
Higashi Hongan-ji monastery and Reception Office museum in, 152–153, 154, 155;
Hiroshima Peace Memorial in, 38, 39, 74;
meisho in, 9, 10;
misemono in, 7–8, 9, 10;
Ōkura Shukokan museum in, 150;
Reiyukai Buddhist sect in, 63;
Ryukoku Museum in, 20, 152, 153–157, 154, 200nn.42–44;
Sarasvatī Museum and Daibutsu garden in, 157–160;
Sendai Daikannon in, 1–4, 2, 22, 28, 29, 78, 101, 173;
Soto Zen temples of, 21;
Star Peak of Seirei in, 28–29, 29, 152;
Tange life and projects in, 35–44, 45, 60, 66, 74;
tsunami in (2011), 1–2, 3;
Water Temple in, 123–124, 126;
White Temple in, 126–127
Japanese Funds-in-Trust, 64
Jeanneret, Charles-Édouard (Le Corbusier), 183n.14, 184n.32, 185n.48;
Ando influenced by, 123;
Tange influenced by, 36–37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43
Jinapañjara (Verses on the Victor’s Armor), 104
Jōgyō Bosatsu, 29, 181n.50
Kaeo Khamwibun, 108
Kamakura Daibutsu, 4, 7
Kannon statues and images, 107, 127, 132. See also Guanyin statues and images;
Awaji Kannon, 4;
Ōfuna Kannon, 7;
Sendai Daikannon, 1–4, 2, 22, 28, 29, 78, 101, 173
Karma Sangbo Sherpa, 72–73, 74
Katsura Palace, 42–43
Kedge, Peter, 78
Keller, Helen, 153
Khao Chi Chan, 101–102, 102
Khemarattha Standing Buddha, 177n.4
Khun Paen, 91
Klautau, Orion, 3
Kobe, Susumu, 57
Koh Loi, 193n.29
Komyo-ji Temple, 124
Kositpipat, Chalermchai, 119–120
Kōsō, Wajo, 9
Kragh, Ulrich Timme, 168
Kuan Yin, 141, 157, 198n.19
Kurose, Takefumi, 59–60
Kushinagar site, 78
Kuthodaw monastery, 79
Kyoto, Japan:
Glass Temple in, 127–129, 128;
Higashi Hongan-ji monastery and Reception Office museum in, 152–153, 154, 155;
Municipal Museum in, 155;
Ryukoku Museum in, 20, 152, 153–157, 154, 200nn.42–44;
Zen monasteries of, 43
Lal, C. K., 68
Lang, Stephen, 196n.5
(p.219) language:
in Buddhist universities, 21;
and lack of classical Buddhist language, 19
Laos, 113;
sculpture gardens of Bunleua Sulilat in, 121–122;
tattooing in, 108, 194n.30;
War Memorial in, 81
Laykyun Setkyar Buddha (Burma), 4
Lee, Joon-Youb, 117–118
leisure, 15–16, 180n.26
Leshan Giant Buddha, 1, 78, 100
Levine, Gregory, 21
local optima, 6, 24–27, 169
Lotus Stupa of German Tara Foundation at Lumbini Park, 52–53, 70–71, 71, 72
Luang Pho Ariyawanso (Suchat Kosonkitiwong), 26, 105–107, 111, 112, 193n.27
Luang Pho Kasem Achansupho (Phra Khru Wibun Achankhun), 108
Luang Phrabang (Laos), 113
Lumbini, Nepal, 35, 39, 40, 45–77, 79;
abandoned and never-completed monasteries in, 50, 50–54, 52, 68, 71;
APECF interest in, 75–77;
Bangladeshi monks in, 47, 47–48, 49;
as birthplace of Buddha, 27, 36, 38, 40, 48–49, 55–57;
central walkway or link in, 46, 47;
Chinese interest in, 75–77, 190n.95;
construction costs in, 60, 61, 62–63;
construction delays in, 64, 67, 188–189n.86;
conversation spaces in, 40, 42, 74;
deliberate lack of decorative elements in, 23;
East Monastic Zone in, 46, 49–51, 66;
entrance fees in, 48, 187–188n.73;
Eternal Peace Flame in, 46;
as failure or success, 54, 67, 69, 75;
fund raising for projects in, 61, 62–63, 64, 73;
future of, 75–78;
impact of development in, 67–69, 70, 74;
International Gotami Nun’s Temple in, 50, 51;
lack of return visits to, 69;
local tourists visiting, 70–72, 73;
Lotus Stupa of German Tara Foundation in, 52–53, 70–71, 71, 72;
Mahabodhi Society of India in, 50, 51;
master plan for, 45, 49, 54, 60, 63–68, 73, 74, 79, 185n.46, 187n.70, 189n.91;
Maya Devi Temple in, 46, 48–49, 66, 73, 187n.70;
Nepali monasteries and centers in, 53;
regional development plans in, 61–62;
sacred garden area in, 35, 48–49, 60, 65;
Sokyo monastery of Japan in, 52, 52;
souvenirs sold at, 69, 69;
Tange visit to (1972), 53, 54–55;
Thai monastery in, 50–51;
Thant in development of, 55–60;
United Nations in development of, 57–63;
West Monastic Zone in, 46, 51–54, 66
Lumbini Development National Directive Committee of Nepal, 75, 76, 77
Lumbini Development Steering Committee, 75
Lumbini Development Trust, 46, 47, 54, 64, 68, 72–73
Lumbini International Research Institute, 51, 187n.70
Macao, Guanyin Ecumenical Center in, 115, 116
Maekawa, Kunio, 37
Mahabodhi Society of India at Lumbini Park, 50, 51
Mahanak elixir, 86
Maitreya statues and images:
in Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum, 140–141, 143, 145, 147;
in Guanyin Inter-Religious Park, 107;
in Haw Par Villa, 83;
proposed in Kushinagar, 78;
in Suối Tiên (Fairy Stream) Amusement Park, 30;
in Wihan Sien, 103
Maki, Fumihiko, 35
Makita, Seinosuke, Double-Bell House of, 37, 183n.20
Manit Walliphodom, 87
Manohra, Ancient City monument to, 91
Matsushita, K., 57–58, 64
Maya Devi Temple in Lumbini Park, 46, 48–49, 66, 73, 187n.70
McIlhenny, Edward “Ned” Avery, 162–165, 167
meisho, 9, 10
metabolism, architectural, Tange on, 36, 40, 67, 72, 74, 77
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig, 43
(p.220) Miller, Daniel, 22
Miller, John, 25
misemono, 7–8, 9, 10, 79, 129, 178n.9
Miyaji, Akira, 156–157
Moga Buddhist Museum, 115–118, 116
monasteries, 8–9;
Ancient City replicas of, 87, 88, 89, 99;
daibutsu and misemono built at, 9;
festival and leisure activities in, 10;
Glass Temple, 127–129, 128;
Higashi Hongan-ji, 152–153, 154, 155;
Internet presence of, 13, 21, 179n.19;
in Lumbini, 48–54, 62, 65, 66, 68, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75;
museums in, 148–149, 152–153, 157;
Nichiren monastery of Myōken, 28–29;
Nishi Hongan-ji, 153, 154, 155–156;
social and familial activities in, 12–13;
Thai style of design, 38, 123;
Tōgan-ji, 157–160;
as tourist sites, 9, 12–13, 56, 72, 78;
Water Temple, 123–124, 126;
Wat Muang, 107–112;
Wat Rong Khun, 118–120, 119;
Wat Sang Saen Suk, 113;
Wat Yansangwararam, 101;
White Temple, 126–127;
Zen, 43
Mount Myōken, Star Peak on, 28–29, 29, 152
Mount Rokko, Chapel of Rokkozan at, 124–125, 125
Muang Boran, 87–88, 191–192n.7. See also Ancient City
Mumford, Lewis, 44, 185n.44
“museum effect,” 160
museums, 6, 7, 9, 27, 131–161;
Asian Civilizations Museum, 148, 152;
in Awaji Kannon, 4;
criticisms of, 160;
as ecumenical sites, 19, 27;
in Erawan Elephant, 85, 92, 93;
in Lumbini Park, 46, 60, 63, 69, 77;
Moga Buddhist Museum, 115–118, 116;
in monasteries, 148–149, 152–153, 157;
motives for visits to, 15, 16;
Nagapuspa Buddhist Culture Museum, 20, 143–144, 154, 156, 161;
Nei Xue Tang, 150–152;
Ōkura Shukokan, 150;
as personal creation of local historians and collectors, 149–150;
Reception Office museum at Higashi Hongan-ji monastery, 152–153;
Ryukoku Museum, 20, 152, 153–157, 154, 200nn.42–44;
Sarasvatī Museum, 157–160;
in Sendai Daikannon, 3, 4;
at University of Pennsylvania, 132–135;
Wihan Sien, 101, 102–103, 193n.25
Myōken, 28
Nabesawa, Kakui, 127–129
Nagapuspa Buddhist Culture Museum, 20, 143–144, 154, 156, 161
Nagoya, Japan, Sarasvatī Museum and Daibutsu garden in, 157–160
Nakamura, Hajime, 59
Nakamura, Hisako, 153
Nakayama, Zenjyō, 127
Narasimhan, G. V., 63
Naritasan Shinjōji Peace Pagoda, 9
Nei Xue Tang museum, 150–152
Nepal, Lumbini sites in. See Lumbini
Nichiren monastery of Myōken, 28–29
Nishi Hongan-ji monastery, 153, 154, 155–156
Nishimura, Yukio, 59–60, 64
Niwa (Hasegawa), 173, 174
Nōfuku Daibutsu, 7
“A Note Further to the Drawing of Bicycles” (Gombrich), 22–23
Nuarta, I Nyoman, 17
Oda Baisen, 157–158
Oda Nobunaga, 157
Oda Nobuyuki, 157
Ōfuna Kannon, 7
Okamoto, Eizzaburō, 7
Ōkura, Kihachiro, 150
Ōkura Shukokan museum, 150
Olcott, Henry Steel, 56
ordination hall in Ang Thong, Thailand, 112
Overdorf, Jason, 76
Page, Scott, 25
Pahlke, Michael, 51
Palace of the Soviets, 36–37
Paritta Chalermpow Koanantakool, 148–149
Park, Chan-soo, 115–118, 116, 118, 121
Pathak, Rachana, 69
Pattaya, Thailand, Sanctuary of Truth in, 4, 23, 84, 94–99, 96, 100, 129
(p.221) Peace Memorial at Hiroshima, 38, 39, 74
Peleggi, Maurizio, 160
Pepper, William, 132
Pérez de Cuéllar, Javier, 63
Perspective: Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum through the Eyes of the People (Shi Fa Zhao), 146
Petersen, Roger, 169
phallic and sexual images at Sarasvatī Museum, 157–160
Phannipha Kulabut, 109, 112–113
Phibulsongkhram, Pleak, 79
Phra Putthamingmongkol Akenakkiri, 4
Phra Reusi in Thailand, 112, 194n.33
Phutthamonthon Buddhist park, 79–80
Powerscourt (Ireland) Asian gardens and Buddha images, 165, 165
Pritzker Prize, 35, 122
public culture, Buddhist, 5, 6–17;
spectacle attractions in, 7–8, 9, 10
The Pursuit of True Happiness and Other Life Observations (Shi Fa Zhao), 145
Rabinovitz, Lauren, 16
Ranade, Jayaveda, 76
Raymond, Antonín, 37, 43, 44, 183n.18
Reception Office museum, 152–153
Reiyukai Buddhist sect funding Lumbini projects, 63, 187n.70
Rényi, Erdős, 25
Rijal, Minendra, 76, 77
Rinzai Zen, 127, 145, 167
Rocha, Cristina, 115
Ruskin, John, 130
Ryukoku Museum, 20, 152, 153–157, 154, 200nn.42–44
Ryukoku University, 153–157
Saigon, Vietnam, 7, 40;
Fairy Stream (Suối Tiên) Amusement Park in, 4, 23, 30–35, 31, 34;
Jade Emperor Pagoda in, 113, 114
Saint Mary’s Roman Catholic Cathedral (Tokyo, Japan), 40–41, 41, 42
Sakapala (Venerable), 137
Sala Keaoku, 122
Salzman, Michele, 10
Samarasekara, Justin, 61
Sanae, Hattori, 150
Sanctuary of Truth, 4, 23, 84, 94–99, 100, 129;
photographs of, 96, 98, 99
Sa-nga Kulkopkiat, 102–103
Sarasvatī Museum and Daibutsu garden, 157–160
Sarnath site, 78
sculpture gardens, 11, 26, 27;
of Bunleua Sulilat, 121–122;
at Haw Par Villa, 82, 83;
at Lumbini Park, 70;
at Moga Buddhist Museum of Park, 115–118, 118;
of Thawan Duchanee, 121;
at Wat Muang, 108, 109, 112;
at Wat Rong Khun, 118–119;
at Wihan Sien, 102
Sedgwick, Eve, 24
Seigworth, Gregory, 23
Sendai Daikannon, 1–4, 2, 22, 28, 29, 78, 101, 173
Sendai tsunami (2011), 1–2, 3
sexual and phallic images at Sarasvatī Museum, 157–160
Shan Buddha images, 177n.4
Sherman, Anna Julia, 131
Shi Fa Zhao, 6, 20, 23, 25, 27, 170, 173;
Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum of, 135–148;
at Golden Pagoda Temple, 136, 137;
motivation and focus of, 171–172;
photograph of, 138;
training and lineage of, 144–145;
writings of, 145–146, 198–199n.23
Shin Buddhism, Ryukoku Museum material on, 153–154, 155, 156
Silk Road, 19, 154, 200n.44
Simmons, Tony, 78
Singapore, 9, 14, 165;
Asian Civilizations Museum in, 148, 152;
Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum in, 135–148 (See also Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum);
Haw Par Villa in, 82–84, 83;
Nei Xue Tang museum in, 150–152;
Tange designing buildings in, 39
Singh, Jaskaram, 56
Sisak Walliphodom, 87, 88, 90, 100, 191n.7
Smith, J. Z., 166, 202n.8
Sokyo monastery of Japan at Lumbini Park, 52, 52
(p.222) Somdet To statues, 104–105
Sommerville, Maxwell, 131–135, 136, 196nn.1–7;
appearance of, 133;
gem collection of, 132, 196n.3
Sonehara, Satoshi, 3
Sorapong Chartree, 104
Soto Zen, 21, 157, 158
South Korea, sculpture garden of Park in, 115–118, 118
spectacle attractions, 7–8, 9, 10, 79, 129, 178n.9
Spring Temple Vairocana Buddha statue, 1
Sri Lanka, Temple of the Tooth Relic in, 135–136
Stange, Ferdinand, 70, 72, 189n.90
Star Peak of Seirei, 28–29, 29, 152
Statue of Liberty, 1;
replicas of, 4, 83
The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (Habermas), 10
Suan Narok (Hell Garden at Wat Muang), 107, 109, 111, 112
success of Buddhist leisure and tourist sites, 4–5, 6;
at Lumbini, 54, 69, 75
Suchat Kosonkitiwong (Luang Pho Ariyawanso), 26, 105–107, 111, 112, 193n.27
Sugawara, Yorozu, 3
Suối Tiên Amusement Park, 4, 23, 30–35, 31, 34
Taiwan:
Dharma Drum Mountain monastery in, 13;
Fo Guang Shan in, 81, 179n.20, 189n.86
Takamatsu, Shin, 29, 41, 152, 199–200n.40
Takamura, Kōun, 7, 8
tallest Buddha image (Khao Chi Chan), 101–102, 102
Taman Mini Indonesia, 87–88
Tang dynasty architecture, as influence on Buddha Tooth Relic Museum, 138–139, 140, 147
Tange, Denise, 184n.24
Tange, Kenzo, 6, 25, 35–44, 130, 170;
Ando influenced by, 123;
architectural influences on, 37–38, 39, 43–44, 173;
architectural philosophy of, 40, 44;
Bangkok-Japanese Cultural Center design of, 38, 184n.24;
Buddhist influence on, 40–43, 58–60, 64, 66;
chosen for Lumbini project, 58–59;
early life of, 36–37, 183n.13;
Hiroshima Peace Memorial, 38, 39, 74;
Lumbini Park design of, 23, 27, 35, 36, 45–77, 79;
on metabolism in architecture, 36, 40, 67, 72, 74, 77;
personality of, 171;
religious life of, 60;
as reluctant Buddhist, 35;
Saint Mary’s Roman Catholic Cathedral designed by, 40–41, 41, 42;
urban design projects of, 39–40, 58, 59, 66;
URTEC firm of, 39, 60;
visit to Lumbini (1972), 53, 54–55;
Yokohama Museum of Art designed by, 39, 173
Tange, Paul Noritaka, 184n.24
Tara Foundation of Germany, Lotus Stupa at Lumbini sponsored by, 52–53, 70–71, 71, 72
tattoos, 108, 194n.30
Taussig, Michael, 22
Temple of the Heart Nagapuspa Photography Competition, 146
Temple of the Tooth Relic (Sri Lanka), 135–136
Thailand, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14;
Ancient City in (See Ancient City);
ecumenical architecture of Wiriyaphan family in, 84–100;
Erawan Elephant in, 84–85, 92–94, 93, 100, 129;
Guanyin Inter-Religious Park in, 105–107, 193n.27;
International Buddhist College in, 21;
Khao Chi Chan in, 101–102, 102;
Lumbini monastery built by group from, 50–51;
monastery museums in, 148–149;
mural characters in, 119, 119–120;
Phra Putthamingmongkol Akenakkiri in, 4;
Phra Reusi in, 112, 194n.33;
Phutthamonthon Buddhist park in, 79–80;
Sanctuary of Truth in, 4, 23, 84, 94–99, 96, 100, 129;
Somdet To statues in, 104–105;
tattooing in, 108, 194n.30;
visitors to Lumbini Park from, 68;
walking Buddha statue in, 7, 80;
Wat Dhammakaya in, 13;
Wat Muang in, 107–112;
Wat Rong Khun in, 118–120, 119;
Wat Sang Saen (p.223) Suk in, 113;
Wat Yansangwararam in, 101;
Wihan Sien in, 101, 102–103, 193n.25
Thant, U, in Lumbini Park development, 55–60, 66
Thawan Duchanee, 120–121, 194–195nn.42–44
Theravada Buddhism:
in Lumbini, 47–48, 49, 53, 54, 66;
in Vietnam, 32, 182n.3
Thianchai Rungruaiyat, 108
Thích He Tông, 32
Thích Nhật Tứ, 32, 182n.4
Thích Quảng Tâm, 32
Tian Tan Buddha, 4
Tiger Balm, 82
Tiger Balm Gardens, 82–84, 83
Tōgan-ji monastery, Sarasvatī Museum on grounds of, 157–160
Tokyo, Japan:
misemono in, 7;
Saint Mary’s Roman Catholic Cathedral in, 40–41, 41, 42;
Tange projects in, 39–41, 42, 44, 60, 66, 74;
Ueno Daibutsu in, 7
Tooth Relic Temple (Singapore), 135–148. See also Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum
Tooth Relic Temple (Sri Lanka), 135–136
tsunami of 2011 in Japan, 1–2, 3
Turner, Victor, 10
ubosot (ordination hall) in Ang Thong, 112
Ueno Daibutsu, 7
UNESCO, 64, 67, 77, 185n.46
United Nations, in development of Lumbini Park, 57–63, 64, 70, 77, 187n.72
United Nations Committee for the Development of Lumbini, 59–60, 63
United Nations Development Programme, 59, 60, 63
United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 76
United States:
Ando projects in, 123;
Asian gardens in, 165;
Avery Island Buddha image in, 162–165, 163, 202nn.4–5;
Crystal Grotto in, 192n.8;
Tange projects in, 39;
University of Pennsylvania museum in, 132–134
University of Pennsylvania, Sommerville at, 132–134, 133
URTEC firm of Tange, 39, 60
Ushiku Daibutsu, 1–2
Vairocana Buddha, 141, 143;
Leshan statue, 1, 78
Vietnam:
Fairy Stream (Suối Tiên) Amusement Park in, 4, 23, 30–35, 31, 34;
Jade Emperor Pagoda in, 113, 114;
Theravada Buddhism in, 32, 182n.3
Villalon, Augusto F., 35, 64–65
Villa Savoye, 36–37
Visit Lumbini Year 2012 campaign, 48, 69, 73–74
Waldhiem, Kurt, 63
War Memorial (Laos), 81
Warner, Michael, 14
Watanabe, Sadao, 59
Wat Chetuphon (Wat Pho), 193n.26
Wat Dhammakaya, 13
Water Temple, 123–124, 126
Wat Muang, 107–112;
giant seated Buddha at, 107, 109, 110;
hell park at, 107, 109, 111, 112, 113;
mirrored hall at, 108, 109
Wat Rong Khun, 118–120, 119
Wat Sang Saen Suk, 113
Wat Thipsukhanaram, 177n.3
Wat Yansangwararam, 101
web presence. See Internet/web presence
West Monastic Zone of Lumbini Park, 46, 51–54, 66
White Temple, 126–127
Wibun Achankhun (Luang Pho Kasem Achansupho), 108
Wihan Sien, 101, 102–103, 193n.25
Wilailak Songsiri, 87, 191n.7
wine produced at Fairy Stream Amusement Park, 33–34
Wiriyaphan, Braphai, 27, 84, 85–88, 100, 129, 170;
Ancient City of, 88, 91, 121 (See also Ancient City);
businesses and financial success of, 86, 87;
Chinese influence on, 91, 92;
early life of, 85–86;
Erawan Elephant of, 25;
illness and death of, 86, 92;
land purchased by, 86, 87, 94, 95;
marriage to Lek, 86, 87;
materials collected (p.224) by, 89;
motivation of, 90, 98, 171;
as part of complex system, 25
Wiriyaphan, Lek, 6, 27, 84–100, 129, 170, 173;
Ancient City of, 87–91 (See also Ancient City);
autobiography of, 85, 86, 191n.3, 191nn.5–6;
books published by, 87, 191n.7;
businesses and financial success of, 86, 87;
Chinese influence on, 91, 92;
early life of, 85;
Erawan Elephant of, 84–85, 92–94, 93, 100, 129;
intent of projects, 99–100;
marriage to Braphai, 86, 87;
motivation of, 90, 98, 171;
as part of complex system, 25;
poetry of, 91–92;
Sanctuary of Truth of, 4, 23, 84, 94–99, 96, 100, 129;
success of projects, 99–100
Wiriyaphan, Pakpian, 92
Wiriyaphan, Pichan, 95, 99
Wiriyaphan Insurance Company, 98
Woon Wee Teng, 150–152
World Buddhist University, 21
World Peace Envoy, 105–107, 193nn.27–28
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 37
Xiao Wunan, 75, 77
Yamada, Mamoru, 37
Yamaguchi, Takashi, 41, 126–129;
Glass Temple of, 127–129, 128;
White Temple of, 126–127
Yobiko Daibutsu, 7
Yokohama Museum of Art, 173, 174
Yoshida, Isoya, 38
Zen Buddhism, 144–145;
influence on Tange, 42, 43, 44;
Rinzai Zen, 127, 145, 167;
Soto Zen, 21, 157, 158