During Park Chung Hee’s first term as president (1963-1967), regime ideologues incorporated selected elements of the wholesome modernization and student vanguard schemas into his gendered program to “Modernize of the Fatherland.” This program subordinated the position of women to that of men in the collective enterprise of rapid but uneven economic development. It also replaced the unreliable student vanguard with the notion of the militarized vanguard, which was to serve as the primary force for the interlinked projects of national defense and industrialization. On the other hand, progressive activists drew on unofficial memories of April 19th and the vanguard schema in staging antiregime protests in 1964-1965. In doing so, they consolidated the culture of noninstitutional youth protest that drove South Korea’s democracy movement (1964-1987).
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