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Korea's Great Buddhist-Confucian DebateThe Treatises of Chong Tojon (Sambong) and Hamho Tuktong (Kihwa)$
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Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780824853808

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824853808.001.0001

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Exposition of Orthodoxy (Hyŏnjŏng non)

Exposition of Orthodoxy (Hyŏnjŏng non)

by Kihwa (Hamhŏ Tŭkt’ong)

(p.82) Exposition of Orthodoxy (Hyŏnjŏng non)
Korea's Great Buddhist-Confucian Debate
A. Charles Muller
University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter consists of an annotated translation of the Buddhist response by the eminent scholar-monk Kihwa, composed primarily in the form of a refutation of the litany of arguments made against Buddhism in Chŏng Tojŏn's Array of Critiques of Buddhism (Pulssi chappyŏn). Taking on the range of arguments against Buddhism employed from the earliest periods up until the 15th century, the main thread of Kihwa's argument is that the three traditions (i.e., including Daoism, as well as Buddhism and Confucianism), are in agreement at the fundamental level (the level of ch'e), in that they all propound an inherent goodness in the human mind, known in Confucianism as in (Ch. ren 仁‎), in Buddhism as Buddha-nature, and the dao in Daoism. However, while Confucians are inconsistent in their paying due regard to this quality, it is the Buddhists whose practices most fully attempt to actualize this inner goodness.

Keywords:   Kihwa, humaneness, altruism, ren, Buddha-nature, Analects, Mencius, no-self

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