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Bayonets in ParadiseMartial Law in Hawai'i during World War II$
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Harry N. Scheiber and Jane L. Scheiber

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780824852887

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824852887.001.0001

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Determining Loyalty

Determining Loyalty

Review Boards, Questionnaires, and Racial Profiling

(p.156) Chapter Nine Determining Loyalty
Bayonets in Paradise

Harry N. Scheiber

Jane L. Scheiber

University of Hawai'i Press

Rather than detain persons solely on the basis of race, as was done on the West Coast of the mainland, in Hawai`i an effort (although hardly objective) was made to determine the loyalty of each individual arrested. Suspects were brought before civilian hearing boards (although some boards included military officers), whose decisions were reviewed by an intelligence reviewing board and eventually by the Military Governor; rehearings were granted by the Military Governor’s Reviewing Board, established in spring1943. The proceedings were entirely lacking in due process, suspects were not informed of charges against them, hearsay was taken as evidence, racial profiling was prevalent, declarations of loyalty were generally ignored, resentment against being detained was cause for continued incarceration, and Kibei in particular were presumed to be disloyal. Once incarcerated, the detainees were further subjected to loyalty questionnaires (used to determine work leaves and eligibility for military service), and those who refused to answer affirmatively were segregated at Tule Lake.

Keywords:   Delos Emmons, Franklin D. Roosevelt, selective detention, mass removal, internment, evacuees, excludees, hearing boards, loyalty questionnaires, Kibei, racial profiling, Sand Island

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