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Bayonets in ParadiseMartial Law in Hawai'i during World War II$
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Harry N. Scheiber and Jane L. Scheiber

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780824852887

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824852887.001.0001

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Selective Detention and Removal

Selective Detention and Removal

(p.132) Chapter Eight Selective Detention and Removal
Bayonets in Paradise

Harry N. Scheiber

Jane L. Scheiber

University of Hawai'i Press

In stark contrast to the mass removals and relocation of all Nikkei on the West Coast of the mainland, in Hawai`i the Army pursued a policy of selective detention only, and less than 1 percent of the ethnic Japanese population was ever incarcerated. However, more than 700 aliens (including those on the original detention lists) were sent to internment camps on the mainland; citizens of enemy alien ancestry who were regarded as dangerous or a potential threat were interned in Hawai`i under the provisions of martial law. Eventually some citizens, mainly Kibei, were paroled and sent to War Relocation Authority Camps on the mainland. They were later joined by several hundred women and children in the category of “evacuees,” as well as by individuals who were a drag on the economy. After martial law ended, more than 70 additional Kibei were sent to the Tule Lake Relocation Camp under an executive order similar to the one that had resulted in the forced removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast of the mainland. Altogether, about 2,000 persons from Hawai`i were incarcerated, most of them ethnic Japanese but also some persons of German and Italian extraction.

Keywords:   Delos Emmons, Franklin D. Roosevelt, selective detention, mass removal, internment, evacuees, excludes, hearing boards, loyalty questionnaires, Kibei, racial profiling, War Relocation Authority, Sand Island, Honouliuli

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