The afterword briefly summarizes the main arguments of the book and looks at global forces that came to reshape the Patani communities. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the rise of Arab nationalism in the Middle East caused much of the intellectual community to shift to Cairo by the 1920s. Back on the Malay Peninsula, the new border settlement split the pondok zone in two, causing another waves of refugees to resettle in what is now Malaysia. Ahmad bin Muhammad Zayn al-Fatani’s appeal for British intervention on behalf of Patani fell on deaf ears and the era of Patani Malay Muslims as minorities in the emerging state of Thailand began in earnest. But Patani Islam continued to evolve under the reforms of Hajji Sulong and others in future generations.
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