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The Pearl FrontierIndonesian Labor and Indigenous Encounters in Australia's Northern Trading Network$
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Julia Martínez and Adrian Vickers

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780824840020

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824840020.001.0001

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Marriage and Australian Citizenship

Marriage and Australian Citizenship

(p.148) Chapter Nine Marriage and Australian Citizenship
The Pearl Frontier

Julia Martínez

Adrian Vickers

University of Hawai'i Press

Indonesians in postwar Australia faced the threat of deportation under the 1949 Wartime Refugees Removal Act. To avoid this fate, the now aging pearling indents were forced to return to the pearling industry. As the men lobbied to leave the industry their success depended on gaining support from local officials as well as federal Ministers. Moral arguments, calling for acknowledgment of their war service and longs years in the pearling industry were sometimes successful. The case of married men who were supporting Australian wives and children was initially rejected, but in 1956 naturalization became available to "spouses" of Australian citizens. In 1958 naturalization was opened up to Indonesians who had 15 years of residence and were judged to lead a "normal" Australian life. Even then, it took some men until 1965 to work their way though complicated applications and some did not live long enough to take up citizenship.

Keywords:   citizenship, deportation, Australia, Indonesian, marriage, women, war service, permanent residence, naturalization, assimilation, White Australia

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