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From King Cane to the Last Sugar MillAgricultural Technology and the Making of Hawaii's Premier Crop$
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C. Allan Jones and Robert V. Osgood

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780824840006

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824840006.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM HAWAII SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hawaii.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hawaii University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HSO for personal use.date: 17 September 2021

Sugar Booms—1876 to 1897

Sugar Booms—1876 to 1897

(p.37) 2 Sugar Booms—1876 to 1897
From King Cane to the Last Sugar Mill

C. Allan Jones

Robert V. Osgood

University of Hawai'i Press

The Reciprocity Treaty increased industry profits, and as a result sugar production increased twenty fold from 1876 to 1897. Though it struggled with chronic labor shortages and unrest, the industry was profitable, imported thousands of immigrant laborers, and made major investments in mills, ports, plantation communities, and railroads to transport cane to its mills. Extensive irrigation ditch systems were constructed to collect water from windward watersheds and transfer it to sunny leeward fields. Maui sugar companies led the industry by developing extensive ditch systems, wells, and small reservoirs to reduce waste of irrigation water. Advances included introduction of steam-powered plows, horse and mule drawn planters and cultivators, fertilizers, and milling and sugar making equipment. The industry also reforested damaged watersheds, promoted agricultural diversification, and formed the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association (HSPA) to help secure immigrant labor and harness science and technology for the good of the industry.

Keywords:   irrigation ditches, wells, reservoirs, reforestation, labor, fertilizers, HSPA

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