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From Race to EthnicityInterpreting Japanese American Experiences in Hawaii$
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Jonathan Y. Okamura

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780824839505

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824839505.001.0001

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Struggle and Resistance

Struggle and Resistance


(p.17) Chapter 2 Struggle and Resistance
From Race to Ethnicity

Jonathan Y. Okamura

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter explores themes of collective struggle and resistance and relate them to several major historical processes and events in which Japanese were involved during the period 1885–1945. These processes include labor recruitment and immigration, plantation labor and life, and labor organizing. The chapter also situates Japanese American history within the larger political, economic, and cultural contexts of the anti-Japanese movement that sought to oppress and marginalize Japanese Americans after they became the largest ethnic group in Hawaiʻi and began to move off the plantations in hopes of advancing themselves economically. It shows how race undermined Japanese American resistance as it continued to be the paramount structural principle regulating social relations in Hawaiʻi.

Keywords:   collective struggle, resistance, labor recruitment, immigration, plantation labor, labor organizing, anti-Japanese movement, Japanese Americans, Hawaiʻi, race

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