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Salvation through DissentTonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea$
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George L. Kallander

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824837167

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.001.0001

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Securing the People

Securing the People

Orthodoxy, Heterodoxy, and the Confucian State

(p.1) Chapter 1 Securing the People
Salvation through Dissent

George L. Kallander

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter shows how Tonghak was one example of a wider pattern of contestation in East Asia, where peripheral groups challenged the center through religion and unsanctioned doctrines. Each religious movement had its own internal dynamic, inspired by specific cultural, political, and economic roots. Even within single movements, such as the Taiping or Tonghak, an array of explanations is possible. But, despite differences, certain forces helped create environments in which religions resurged in the nineteenth century: increased circulation of people and knowledge; developments in printing, literacy, and education; environmental changes and disease; and the impact of colonialism, imperialism, and global capitalism.

Keywords:   Tonghak, religion, East Asia, religious movements, Catholicism, Buddhism

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