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Dilemmas of AdulthoodJapanese Women and the Nuances of Long-Term Resistance$

Nancy Rosenberger

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824836962

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824836962.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM HAWAII SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hawaii.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hawaii University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HSO for personal use.date: 21 September 2021

(p.205) Index

(p.205) Index

Source:
Dilemmas of Adulthood
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
Abu-Lughod, L., 5
agency, 3, 4–9, 14, 26–27, 158;
time, 91–92
Althusser, L., 190n.2
amae. See dependency
amaeru. See independence
ambiguity, 7, 10, 12, 23, 26, 46, 52, 158–159;
definition, 10
ambivalence, 12, 16, 26, 28, 34–35, 48, 52, 97, 109, 160, 164, 165, 169, 173, 175, 190nn.1–2;
author’s experience, 14–15;
definition, 10;
related Japanese terms, 7;
signals of, 35–37
analysis, anthropological, 27
anti-nuclear, 180
art, 71–72;
dance, 148;
theater, 73–74
Asad, T., 188n.8
Bahktin, M., 36
Bauman, Z., 17
Berque, A., 13
Borovoy, A., 14
Bourdieu, P., 17, 158, 189n.16
boyfriend, 8, 13, 15, 31, 32, 41, 42, 44
Buddhism, 192n.1;
relationship to self, 94;
sense of maturity, 14;
Shinnyoen, 192n.1;
Zen, 61
changing ideas, 31, 41, 131
children, 170–171;
advantages of having, 95;
care for, 125;
childlessness, 82–83;
goals for, 101;
how to raise, 97–98, 117, 131–136, 152, 153, 154–155
choice, 111, 160;
dilemma of, 45–46, 173, 190n.4;
gauntlet of, 45–46;
ideology of, 104
Christianity, 80, 95
class, 49, 51–52, 89–90, 144, 162–163;
status-climbing, 122
cocooning, 116, 123
cohabitation, 30–31, 42, 192n.4 (chap 6)
Comaroff, J. L., and J. Comaroff, 11–13, 16–17, 51, 157
competition, 133
connection, 11, 83
consumerism, 20, 123
contradictions, 16–18, 23–24, 26, 104, 160
counseling, 60
couples relationships:
conflict, 85–86, 101–102, 137;
happily married without children, 94;
like siblings, 91
Dales, L., 6, 62
Das, V., 189n.17
(p.206) dependency, 18, 31, 35, 56–57, 60, 67, 80, 98, 110, 119, 164–165
devoted effort, 18
dilemmas, 47, 52
disabled, 89
Doi, T., 57
double bind, 17, 23, 43, 50, 65, 89, 115, 158, 173
double consciousness, 70, 143
earthquake, 183;
effects of, 177–178
economy, 20–21
education, 163;
teachers, 64–69, 134–135
emerging adult, 18, 47, 173, 190nn.4–5
emotions, 37, 166–167;
daughter-mother, 69;
obligation to emotions, 64, 106
en. See connection
endurance, 18, 119–120, 126, 166–167
enjoyment, 20, 94
Equal Employment Opportunity Law, 21, 30
experts, 22, 60, 116, 168
family, 169–171;
valuing emotional warmth, 43
fashion, 29
fathers, 68
feeling of worth, 62
Foucault, M., 8–9, 18, 188n.11, 190n.1 (chap 2)
freedom, 20, 46, 65, 70, 90
friends, 167–169;
advice from, 42;
importance of, 60–61
Fukushima, 177, 179, 183
future:
insecurity, 96–97
gaman. See endurance
gambaru. See devoted effort
gender equality, 23, 152, 154
gender inequality, 25;
discrimination, 65, 66, 73
generational discourse, 24, 38, 43, 48, 69, 88, 93, 160
Giddens, A., 123, 189n.19
globalization, 20, 26, 189n.19
Goldstein-Gidoni, O., 115, 122
government policies, 21–22, 124, 192n.5 (chap 5);
attitude toward, 45, 172, 183;
ideology, 93
growing up, 18–20
Gunewardena, N., 7, 17, 188nn.9–10
Gupta, A., and J. Ferguson, 44, 158, 188n.11
Harvey, D., 189n.19
health, 68, 87, 121;
sickness, 74;
stress, 80–81
housewives, 23, 83, 173–174
husbands:
attitudes toward children, 87, 97;
attitudes toward wives, 87, 97, 114, 148;
dependent, 80, 82;
help from, 131;
images of, 93;
old-fashioned, 88;
relationship with in-laws, 91;
relationship with wife, 170;
spoiled, 80, 91, 92;
wives attitudes toward, 105–106, 141
identity:
flexible, 25;
hybrid, 25;
individuals, 161, 166;
multilayered, 25
independence, 35, 54–55, 58, 60, 62, 63, 65, 92, 133, 171
individual responsibility, 92, 104, 106, 107, 171
infertility, 81, 82, 87, 93, 94, 135, 147
international experience, 32–33, 58–59, 150;
dreams of, 69;
living abroad, 58–59
Ivry, T., 120
(p.207) jibun. See self
kinship, 40, 96, 167;
ancestors, 180;
eldest son, 40, 42, 84, 96;
in-law relationships, 38
Kirishima, 25
Kitamura, A., 190n.4
late-modern Japan, 20–23;
coming of age, 20–22;
growing up, 18–20;
recession, 21;
relationships of, 95, 96
Lebra, T., 14
life stages, 48
Lovell, T., 48
Lyon, M., and J. Barbelet, 37
Mahmood, S., 5, 120, 187n.5
marriage:
arranged introductions, 86;
changing ideas, 42;
DINK, 96;
divorce, 86, 88, 141, 191n.2 (chap 4);
images of, 58;
keeping own names, 151, 152;
lack of pressure, 33;
pressure of, 39–40;
rural, 30
married women, 46;
attitudes of, 46–47
media, 20, 32;
e-mail, 32
Melucci, A., 45, 46, 47, 158
men:
changing attitudes, 42, 44, 149–150;
women’s images of, 59, 73
mental orchestrations (heteroglossia), 36, 44, 65, 97
methods, 1;
longitudinal study, 1–3, 14, 187n.2;
sample, 14
Miura, A., 25
modernity, 51–52, 189n.19
morality, 167
Morioka, 29, 39, 49–50, 118
mothers, 23, 169;
care of, 62, 67;
doctor discourses, 125, 127;
helping daughters, 91;
ideology of, 106;
of interviewees, 19–20, 33;
meaning of motherhood, 81, 102–103, 115;
postwar ideal, 191n.1 (chap 4);
relationships with, 43, 61;
relationships with in-laws, 80;
work and motherhood, 111, 112–113, 131, 140, 142, 150, 174, 192nn.5–6
mothers-in-law, 115, 169–170;
care from, 97;
conflict, 91, 136, 147;
conflict avoidance, 94;
cooperation, 96
multigenerational households, 38, 51, 143
music, 149
neoliberal, 21–22
new breed (shinjinrui), 17
Nobuta, 46
nombiri. See values
nuclear explosion, 177, 179
nuclear power, 180
nurse, 74–76, 112
obligation, 167
Ortner, S., 5, 188nn.6–10
Panopticon, 18, 21, 111
parasite singles, 22
parents:
care of, 69, 71, 93, 124, 126;
help from, 131, 132, 141, 142
performance of choice, 69
pets:
cats, 90;
dogs, 86–87, 90
postdecisional regret, 88, 98, 153
Postwar Japan:
economy, 92;
growing up, 18–20;
institutions, 64, 66, 77
power, 102, 105;
will to power, 34, 43, 57, 111
radiation, 177, 179–180, 181–182
Rattansi, A., 17
regional. See rural
(p.208) relationships, 42;
skinship, 80;
sticky, 61, 68, 92
religion, 71–72;
new, 72, 74, 137;
Reiki, 75, 76;
women’s use of, 74, 75, 77, 137
residence:
living alone, 41;
own apartment, 32, 54, 65
resistance, 4–9, 19–20, 44, 46, 71;
long-term, 11, 16, 35, 52, 98–99, 109, 157–158, 159, 160, 164, 165, 172, 173, 175
retirement home, 39–40
risk, 47, 48, 118, 120, 177, 184
rural, 48–53, 161–162;
childless women, 84, 93;
idealization of, 136, 138–139;
married women, 16, 139;
population change, 51;
single women, 72;
traditions, 52, 143, 155;
village of interviewees, 50
self, 13, 23–26, 31, 34, 35, 61, 68, 78–79, 108, 132, 158, 172–175;
cultivating, 10;
development of, 48;
as free choice, 24;
late-modern, 97;
multilayered, 25;
psychosocial, 36;
reflection, 48;
responsibility, 48, 106, 108–109;
self-actualization, 23, 24, 32;
self-awareness, 14, 25–26;
self-centered, 23;
selfish, 23, 143;
selflessness, 23;
self-sacrifice, 47, 121, 170-171;
“what is it?,” 29
sense of worth, 30
sexual freedom, 43
sexual relations:
couples, 80;
lack of, 80, 91, 92
Shintaoism, 14
siblings, 31, 42, 68, 168
singlehood, 37–39, 41, 46, 47, 65;
howling dogs, 46, 54;
Ole Miss, 88, 191n.3 (chap 4)
social movement:
new, 46–47, 53, 104, 168;
organic farmer, 151–153, 154, 192n.7
statistics:
birthrate, 192n.4 (chap 6);
divorce, 192n.3;
employment, 130;
fertility rate, 105;
motherhood, 189n.15;
sex among married couples, 191n.4;
single, 190n.1 (chap 3);
single man, 189n.20;
US fertility rate, 187n.1;
women, 2–3, 23;
work, 192n.6
stress, 66, 113, 126, 131, 133, 135
structure, 14, 26–27, 172
structure of norms, 26
subordination:
psychological, 34–35
suicide, 76
symbolic bootstrapping, 36–37, 58, 112
tension, 7, 12, 16, 26, 28, 77;
definition, 10
“the two of us,” 82–83, 87, 88, 93–94
time, 159;
agency, 91–92
Tohoku, NE, 1–2, 23, 37, 190n.6
Tokyo, 29;
life for women, 49
Touraine, A., 17, 48, 66
traditions, 164
trust, 136
tsunami, 177;
effects of, 178
Ueno, C., 25, 46, 62;
and S. Nobuta, 17
urban/rural difference, 26, 44, 48–52, 119, 161
values:
laid-back, 113, 144, 162
vulnerability, 34
Vygotsky, L., 36
Weber, M., 71
Williams, R., 11, 51, 188n.13
(p.209) will to power, 111, 169, 190n.1 (chap 2);
willed effect, 35
women:
life stages, 44
work, 20–21, 31, 83, 90, 171–172;
benefits, 131–132;
contract, 31;
full-time, 130–131, 134–135, 140, 141;
future plans, 109, 113;
meaning of, 110, 133–135;
overload, 70–71;
part-time, 145–150;
relationships, 39, 41;
self-employment, 60;
work and motherhood, 111, 112–113, 131, 140, 142, 150, 174, 192nn.5–6
yarigai. See sense of worth
Yoda, T., 57