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The Qing Opening to the OceanChinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757$
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Gang Zhao

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824836436

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.001.0001

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The Kangxi Emperor Bans Trade with Southeast Asia

The Kangxi Emperor Bans Trade with Southeast Asia

(p.153) Eight The Kangxi Emperor Bans Trade with Southeast Asia
The Qing Opening to the Ocean

Gang Zhao

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter traces how external and internal factors—especially the imagined Western threat caused by the Chinese Rites Controversy that peaked in the second decade of the eighteenth century, and the conflict between the Manchus and Han—led Kangxi to limit private trade with Southeast Asia. As trade between China and Southeast Asia flourished following the 1684 policy reform, the emperor grew concerned about security and the food supply. The mounting distrust between the Han and Manchu and the expansion of the Chinese diaspora aggravated his worries, prompting his decision to ban trade with Southeast Asia. Yet the trade network had already penetrated deep into local communities, and the ban consequently resulted in new social and economic problems for the coastal economy.

Keywords:   Western threat, Chinese Rites Controversy, Manchu, Han, Kangxi, policy reform, Chinese diaspora, trade ban, trade network, coastal economy

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