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The Qing Opening to the OceanChinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757$
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Gang Zhao

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824836436

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.001.0001

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Separating Trade from Tribute

Separating Trade from Tribute

Kangxi Ends the Tribute Trade System

(p.99) Five Separating Trade from Tribute
The Qing Opening to the Ocean

Gang Zhao

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter focuses on Kangxi's new policy, which gave market forces priority by unlinking trade from tribute. Foreign traders were no longer obliged to deal with the strict regulations and the humiliation that accompanied the tribute system, and soon China's ports were full of ships from Japan, Britain, and dozens of other countries that had never bothered to cultivate tributary relations with the Qing. The chapter also examines the significance of Kangxi's policy by placing it in the context of the rise and decline of the tribute trade system. The tribute trade system can be divided into three periods: from 1370 to 1480, the system operated effectively, encouraging the development of tribute trade while limiting private trade; from 1480 to 1683, the tribute trade system no longer performed the task it had been created for; from 1684 to 1780, private trade flourished and tribute trade continued in a much reduced capacity.

Keywords:   trade, tribute system, tribute trade system, tribute trade, private trade, foreign traders

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