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The Qing Opening to the OceanChinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757$
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Gang Zhao

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824836436

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.001.0001

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The Northeast Asian Trade Network, the Manchu Procommerce Tradition, and the 1684 Open-Door Trade Policy

The Northeast Asian Trade Network, the Manchu Procommerce Tradition, and the 1684 Open-Door Trade Policy

Chapter:
(p.57) Three The Northeast Asian Trade Network, the Manchu Procommerce Tradition, and the 1684 Open-Door Trade Policy
Source:
The Qing Opening to the Ocean
Author(s):

Gang Zhao

Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.003.0004

This chapter discusses how the emerging northeast Asian trade network inclined the Jurchen and Manchu peoples to develop a way of consciously enriching the state through trade, inspiring the banner elite to push the Kangxi emperor to lift the maritime trade ban. The northeast Asian trade network emerged in response to Chinese and Korean demand for sable and ginseng, which had risen rapidly from the late fifteenth century onward—only trade with the Jurchens could meet the increasing demand. Through this network, Chinese iron tools, silk and other textiles, Korean salt and cattle, Southeast Asian copper, and Japanese knives flowed into the Jurchen and Mongolian regions in exchange for ginseng, furs, honey, and horses. Ultimately, the Manchu's economic dependence on the northeast Asian trade network became a key element in the development of Manchu mercantilism.

Keywords:   northeast Asian trade network, Jurchen, Manchu, Kangxi emperor, maritime trade ban, Manchu mercantilism

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