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The Qing Opening to the OceanChinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757$
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Gang Zhao

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824836436

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.001.0001

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Reconsidering Overseas Trade

Reconsidering Overseas Trade

The Chinese Intellectual Response to the Emerging Global Economy

(p.41) Two Reconsidering Overseas Trade
The Qing Opening to the Ocean

Gang Zhao

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter examines how globalization affected high officials' thinking, obliging them to acknowledge the importance of overseas trade for the coastal economy and society. As the Chinese economy became involved with distant markets, members of the official elite urged the imperial court to reform its trade institutions. Their views contributed directly to adjustments to the tributary trade system made under the Ming dynasty and later to the 1684 open-door policy. Although such politically marginalized intellectuals as Li Zhi, Gu Yanwu, and Huang Zongxi also contributed to discussions of the economy, government officials had a far greater impact. More important, because the officials' views focused on the political and economic consequences of interrogational trade, they were among the early observers of globalization.

Keywords:   globalization, overseas trade, Chinese economy, trade institutions, tributary trade system, open-door policy, interrogational trade

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