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The Qing Opening to the OceanChinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757$
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Gang Zhao

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824836436

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.001.0001

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Chinese Private Maritime Trade and Global Integration

Chinese Private Maritime Trade and Global Integration

(p.19) One Chinese Private Maritime Trade and Global Integration
The Qing Opening to the Ocean

Gang Zhao

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter emphasizes the continuities in policies and practices surrounding private maritime trade from the Song and Yuan dynasties to the Ming and Qing, showing that the solid foundation laid in the Song and Yuan made it much easier for Chinese merchants to dominate international trade. The increasingly significant position of private trade in social and economic life led the Song and Yuan governments to enact a maritime policy centered on the encouragement of private trade. Since then, despite a disastrous decline in the early Ming, China's private trade took advantage of favorable international factors to surge from 1500 onward. By the 1680s, well-organized Chinese trade groups were not only dominating the western Pacific trade network but also playing a crucial part in the Chinese economy by bringing foreign silver into China.

Keywords:   private maritime trade, Song dynasty, Yuan dynasty, Ming dynasty, Qing dynasty, international trade, maritime policy, Chinese trade groups, Chinese economy

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