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The Qing Opening to the OceanChinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757$
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Gang Zhao

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824836436

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.001.0001

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(p.1) Introduction
The Qing Opening to the Ocean

Gang Zhao

University of Hawai'i Press

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the series of decisions that were made in the year 1684 which proved momentous in the history of Chinese foreign trade. First, the maritime trade ban was lifted and Manchu and Chinese private traders were allowed to trade abroad. Second, all merchants from both tribute and nontribute countries were permitted to enter coastal ports. Third, a clear distinction between trade and tribute enabled those countries having no tributary relationship with China to participate in private trade. Fourth, a maritime customs systems managed seaborne trade and collected tariffs. These policies, the most important elements of High Qing trade policy, remained in force for the subsequent century and a half.

Keywords:   Chinese foreign trade, maritime trade ban, Manchu private traders, Chinese private traders, private trade, maritime customs, High Qing, trade policy

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