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The Qing Opening to the Ocean – Chinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757 - Hawaii Scholarship Online
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The Qing Opening to the Ocean: Chinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757

Gang Zhao


Did China drive or resist the early wave of globalization? Some scholars insist that China contributed nothing to the rise of the global economy that began around 1500. Others have placed China at the center of global integration. Neither side, though, has paid attention to the complex story of China's maritime policies. This book systematically explores the evolution of imperial Qing maritime policy from 1684 to 1757 and sets its findings in the context of early globalization. The book argues that rather than constrain private maritime trade, globalization drove it forward, linking the Song a ... More

Keywords: China, globalization, global economy, imperial Qing, maritime policy, Chinese merchants, East Asian trade, international trade, Asian trade network, Chinese diaspora

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2013 Print ISBN-13: 9780824836436
Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016 DOI:10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Gang Zhao, author
University of Akron