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The Buddha SideGender, Power, and Buddhist Practice in Vietnam$

Alexander Soucy

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780824835989

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824835989.001.0001

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(p.231) Index

(p.231) Index

Source:
The Buddha Side
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press

Page numbers in boldface type refer to illustrations.

A Di Đà Phật (Ch. Amituo Fo; S. Amitābha Buddha), 26, 47, 55, 56, 121, 126, 129;
chanting name, 1, 126, 205n2;
evoking name, 138
A Nan Đà (S. Ānanda), 47, 48, 168
absolution. See Buddha: pardon from
academy, 25, 31, 35;
as masculine, 164, 165, 208n12
afterlife, 20, 38, 62, 75, 95, 120, 122, 137, 171
age, 67, 98, 117, 121, 136–137;
appropriate activities, 125–126;
and leisure time, 123;
and religiosity, 118–126, 159, 161–165, 202–203. See also hierarchy: and age
alcohol, 74, 76, 101, 157;
men drinking, 74, 76, 101, 110, 190;
women drinking, 101–102
altar, 1, 140, 213n6;
ancestor, 20, 34, 47, 81, 121, 216n1;
business, 73;
home, 18, 86, 97, 119, 145, 150–151, 199;
mother goddess, 58. See also iconography
ambivalence, 63, 74–75, 77, 91
Amitābha Buddha. See A Di Đà Phật
Amituo Fo. See A Di Đà Phật
ancestors, 25, 63, 77, 115, 208n11;
as active forces, 22;
affecting karma, 174;
blessings, 90;
commemoration of, 32, 77;
cult, 10, 70, 122–123;
and ghosts, 30, 207n5, 208n11, 213n7;
national, 28, 32, 35;
reciprocal relationships with, 22, 94–95;
secularized, 59, 62;
tablets, 56;
áo dài, 103, 106
architecture and art:
as representative of culture, 41, 59, 187. See also pagoda: architecture
arhats (la hán), 25, 27, 45, 48, 55
aspirations, 89, 99, 133, 175, 191
astrology, 52, 209n19
attachment, 90, 168, 206n15, 217n7
audiences, 143, 148, 153, 216n4. See also performance
authenticity, 39, 62, 161, 181
authority, 40, 59, 65, 179–181, 187–191, 193, 196;
claims of, 177, 201;
of experts, 75;
lack of, 7;
language and, 184–191, 193, 195, 203;
local, 216n1;
male, 6, 31, 62, 100, 103, 160–161, 177, 196;
recognition and, 155;
religious, 7;
of the state, 51, 65;
in structure of power, 99. See also legitimacy
Avalokiteśvara. See Quan Âm
avoidance:
of displays of knowledge, 201;
practices, 65, 91, 109, 111, 136, 180, 189, 204, 212n5;
of religions, 17, 62, 64, 68, 71, 77, 78, 160, 201;
of rituals, 180, 182, 189–191, 204;
of spirit possession rituals, 6;
of superstition, 159, 163;
of women’s practices, 13, 163, 164. See also Đức, Mr.; Lê, Mr.
Bà Chúa Kho. See Lady of the Storehouse
Bà Chúa Xứ. See Lady of the Realm
Bà Đá Pagoda, 52, 147, 214n6
ban cúng. See ritual group
barrenness, 106, 153, 175
behavior, 77, 137;
affected, 139;
changing, 101–102;
feminine, 19, 70, 101–102, 109;
submissive, 103. See also conspicuous devotion; faith; performance
bên phật. See Buddha side
bên thánh. See spirit side
betel nut, 22, 30, 87, 121
Bình, Mrs., 41–42, 119, 127, 133, 155, 156–158
(p.232) boasting (khoe), 139, 141, 151, 154–156
bodhisattvas. See buddhas and bodhisattvas
books:
as markers, 2, 135–136, 145, 186;
on pagodas, 41, 51. See also magazines; publishing; study
Bourdieu, Pierre, 141–142, 205n7, 206n8, 216n3
brag. See boasting
Buddha, the (V. Thích Ca Mâu Ni Phật; S. Śākyamuni Buddha), 40, 55, 59;
accentuation of, 39, 45, 48, 49;
grace of, 176;
granting favors, 108, 115, 189;
pardon from, 167, 169, 173–176, 203, 217n6;
reliance on, 174;
showing respect (not worshipping), 50, 62, 172
Buddha side (bên phật), 25–30 passim, 55, 57, 62, 65, 200
buddhas and bodhisattvas, 25–26, 28, 29, 57, 200;
blessings from, 79, 81, 84, 90, 176, 216n2;
help from, 107, 166;
imminent, 89;
serving, 124
Buddhism:
activism, 40, 210n9;
complimentary with spirit worship, 23, 31, 36, 38, 55, 57, 191, 199–200;
doctrinal, 3, 90, 93, 169–170, 172, 175–177, 201;
to ease anxiety/suffering, 107, 113, 123, 162;
elite view, 40, 164, 179;
equality, 135, 139, 158;
as feminine, 13, 69, 160, 161, 163, 191, 204;
gender inequality in, 100, 135, 139, 164;
goal of, 38, 83, 89–91, 141, 163, 166, 168, 169, 173, 217n7;
Humanistic, 39;
internationalization, 43, 48;
Kammatic, 169;
lay practice, 93, 167, 172;
leadership, 39, 41, 42, 140, 144, 160, 163, 191, 193;
Mahayana, 1, 7, 18, 35, 48, 55, 91, 93, 206n2;
men and, 1, 9–10, 53, 76, 135, 160, 165, 184;
modernism, 49;
Nibbānic, 169;
non-exclusive, 118, 200;
non-prescriptive, 118;
normative, 181, 196;
old men turn to, 159–160;
orthodoxy, 4, 25, 37, 45, 55, 164, 176–177, 180, 189, 196, 205n6;
philosophy, 196, 199, 204;
rationalized, 43, 51;
Revival, 38–40, 48, 59;
rituals, 53;
state control, 34, 37, 40, 43, 51, 211n10;
supported by women, 164–165, 217n5;
textual, 48;
Theravada, 18, 91, 93, 134, 169, 206n2;
unity, 41, 53;
in the West, 3;
Buddhist practice, 2–4;
as care for family, 97–99, 108–109, 115–116, 123, 137, 163, 166, 170, 174, 196, 203, 216n2;
emotional, 163;
at home, 131, 199;
individualistic, 163, 173, 175, 189, 217n2;
intellectual, 163, 173, 196;
interpretations of, 3, 176, 189, 201, 216n2;
lack of systemization, 2–3, 167;
levels of, 5;
of men, 1;
motivations for, 5, 126, 143, 162, 175, 203;
multiple practices, 2–5, 118, 176, 180, 199, 201, 204;
offerings, 199, 202;
to prepare for death, 120–122, 137, 162, 175;
reading as, 180;
stress on, 167, 171;
writing as, 179, 182, 196. See also chanting; devotion; morality; study; sutra recitals
Buddhist saints. See arhats
Buddhists (phật tử), 118;
activities, 126–132;
definition of, 4, 199–200;
initiation, 132, 191–196;
burial, 122, 129;
site, 121
burnt offerings (hàng mã), 2, 49, 75, 79, 86, 121, 205n4;
as superstition, 34, 65
business, 8, 28, 53, 82, 89, 90, 163;
women and, 66, 104. See also mở hang; religion(s): and business
businessmen and religion, 30, 63, 69, 72–75, 77, 78, 189, 194, 202
Butler, Judith, 205n7
Ca Diếp (S. Kāśyapa), 47, 48
Cadière, Leopold, 33, 35, 199
capital, 42, 95, 158, 187, 203;
cultural, 6, 7, 165, 193;
social, 59, 181, 206n8;
spirit, 85;
symbolic, 98, 148, 152, 165, 184–186, 191, 196, 201;
transferability of, 206n8
cắt tiền duyên, 19–20, 107
cathexis, 70, 102, 104–105, 201, 202, 206n15, 215n15;
and religious practice, 107;
structure of, 99
Catholics, 34, 40, 207n4, 209n18, 210n7
(p.233) causality, 168–170. See also karma
Chân Tiên Pagoda, 79
chanting, 18, 69, 75, 138, 199;
correctly, 171;
at funerals, 122, 128–129, 137;
goal of, 166, 188;
at home, 18, 144, 151;
for meaning, 168, 171–173;
men and, 1, 69, 119, 126, 191;
no supernatural benefit, 189–190;
practice of women, 118, 126, 173, 182, 189, 191;
sutras (tụng kinh), 28, 53, 97, 119, 121, 122, 125, 166, 172, 176, 180, 188, 194, 202. See also sutra recitals
charms, 83, 187, 199. See also talismans
children, 94, 110, 123, 137;
control of, 100;
debt to mothers/parents, 111, 112–113, 116, 175;
imperative, 123;
religious practice for, 26, 94, 108–109, 123, 202;
unfilial, 113. See also barrenness; filial piety; sons
China, 18, 64, 81, 82, 90, 112, 149, 218n5;
cultural dominance, 32–33, 186;
medicine, 33;
relation to Vietnam, 33, 35, 39, 208n14;
Chinese language, 43, 127, 179, 180, 182, 185, 186–187, 193, 194, 218n1;
inscriptions, 43, 136, 179, 187, 188;
of religion, 187, 188, 192
Christian missionaries, 39
chùa. See pagoda
class, 65, 67, 68, 97, 142;
middle, 17, 97, 99, 105
clothing, 87, 97, 103, 105–106, 120, 121–122, 145, 146, 149, 153;
as marker, 133–135, 146, 149, 151, 203;
monastic style, 119, 133, 150. See also fashion; robes; uniforms
Cô Bơ, 87–88
communal house (đình), 8, 22, 64, 83, 130, 160, 185, 187, 210n3, 212n4;
destruction of, 33–34, 65;
reconstruction, 65, 216n1;
rituals (tế), 18, 77, 160, 216n1;
structured, 132, 158;
women’s exclusion from, 216n1. See also hierarchy: in communal house
Communist Party, 8, 9, 39, 190, 208n12;
membership in, 64
communitas, 132–133. See also inclusion
compassion (có tâm), 29, 90, 217n7
Compendium of Outstanding Figures of the Zen Garden (Thiền Uyển Tập Anh), 39–40
competition, 13, 55, 137, 139–142, 149, 150, 158, 177, 203
complicity, 41, 68, 103, 104
comprehension, 54, 126, 127, 171–173, 180, 187–189, 191, 195, 201, 215n13
Côn Sơn Pagoda, 131, 215n9
conformity, 5, 41, 55, 68–71, 101, 106, 170, 172, 177, 196, 212n4
Confucianism, 7, 32, 33, 35, 67, 87, 90, 99, 110, 179, 208nn15–16, 209n18, 215n8, 216n2;
Hồ Chí Minh as model of, 183;
and masculinity, 14, 175, 182–184, 204;
scholars of, 185
conspicuous devotion, 13, 142–148, 146, 152–158, 177, 203;
praying, 138–139, 143, 151
context, 6, 17, 24, 68, 100, 121, 143, 208n11, 212n4
contradictions, 24, 36, 78, 99, 121, 212n4
Cực Lạc. See Pure Land, The
cúng. See ritual(s)
cynicism:
towards religious practice, 51, 63, 155. See also family: disapproval
dangerous things, 91, 212n5
Daoism, 33, 35, 179, 216n2
Dâu Pagoda, 76
dead, the, 10, 49, 115, 208n11;
as active forces, 20–21, 23, 30;
commemoration of, 17, 23, 53, 65, 75, 120, 144, 180;
communication with, 21, 61–63, 129;
needs of, 70, 106, 120;
war dead, 35. See also ancestors; ghosts; hell; séances
death, 26, 28, 61–63, 64, 93, 137;
anniversary, 17, 18, 77, 121, 159, 212n4;
bad, 65;
good, 120, 122;
preparing for, 120–122, 124, 129, 162, 175, 214n2;
unnatural, 30, 65
decision making, 21, 100–101, 104, 108, 109, 140, 157, 183, 216n1. See also husbands
decorations, 18, 113, 133, 137, 145–146, 158, 199
Đền Bà Chúa Kho. See Lady of the Storehouse: Temple for
desire. See cathexis
destiny (duyên), 172, 218n12
(p.234) devotion, 39, 40, 95, 141, 151, 167, 196, 202, 203, 216n2;
goal, 166;
dharma guardians (hộ pháp), 25, 27, 56
Dharma talks (nghê giảng), 5, 18, 127–128, 128, 134, 145, 147, 182, 214n6
Di Lặc Phật (Maitreya Buddha), 47, 55, 56
di tích lịch sử văn hóa. See historical and cultural relic
địa ngục. See hell
Địa Tạng (Ch. Dizang; S. Kṣitigarbha), 9–10, 26, 45, 47, 56
diaspora, 11, 14, 20, 38, 100, 144, 205n5, 207n4, 210n9
Diêm Vương. See Kings of Hell
đình. See communal house
disparagement of religion, 36, 64, 71, 78, 81, 92, 96, 98, 108, 160, 200
displays, 13, 19, 42, 48, 133, 136, 148, 149, 155;
of generosity, 146, 147, 150;
of wealth, 90, 142, 152. See also conspicuous devotion; performance
distinction, 13, 132, 143, 163, 203;
male practice from women’s, 165, 191, 196–197, 203;
markers of, 148–149, 151, 158
divination as superstition, 34
Dizang. See Địa Tạng
Đổi Mới. See Renovation
dominance of men over women, 68, 71, 106, 203, 204
donations, 2, 34, 131–132, 140, 142, 146–149, 203, 212n6;
box (hôm công đức), 131, 147, 212n6;
by businessmen, 72;
buying merit, 116;
central practice, 93;
certificates, 147;
inscriptions, 146, 147–148;
to monks, 18, 147–148, 213n6;
by women, 119, 137, 155
đồng . See effeminate
đốt . See spirit money: burning
drinking. See alcohol
dư luận. See public opinion
Đức, Mr., 48–50, 189–191, 201
Dược Sư (Medicine Buddha), 26, 167
duyên. See destiny
ế chồng, 106
Earth God. See Ông Địa
economy, 8, 34, 86;
economic equality, 100;
symbolic, 98, 111, 141–142;
uncertainty of, 8
education, 60, 65, 74, 97, 109, 177, 185, 186, 189;
male bias in, 183–184;
monastic, 37, 43, 44, 52, 187, 194, 210n8;
as signifier, 6, 174;
for women, 100, 106, 195
effeminate (đồng ), 23, 68–71, 103, 212n6
Elder People’s Association (Hội cao tuổi), 123, 162
Elderly Women’s Buddhist Association (hội chư bà), 64, 207n3, 215n11
embodiment, 68, 70, 152, 205n7. See also habitus
emotion, 66, 84, 95, 96, 99, 109, 111, 116, 126, 133, 163, 165, 204, 206n15. See also sentiment
emphasized femininity, 102–105, 107, 108, 173, 202, 212n5, 213n2
English language, 60, 182, 184–186, 189
enlightenment (giác ngộ), 26, 28, 90, 168–169, 189
Enlightenment Weekly Magazine (Tuần báo giác ngộ), 18, 44, 136
exclusion, 133–136, 178, 193, 194, 216n1
exercise, 100, 123, 162, 178
face (mặt), 152–153;
losing face (mất mặt), 112, 154
faith, 26, 75, 77, 89, 91–92, 94, 97–98, 115–118 passim, 121, 199, 200, 205n2
family, 123, 213n7;
disapproval, 61, 147;
finances, 100;
happiness (hạnh phúc gia đình), 94, 109–110;
ơn in, 112;
religious practice for, 2, 19, 38, 72, 84, 90, 91, 93, 98, 108–109, 115, 130, 137, 143, 166, 169, 174, 176–177, 202–203, 212n2, 216n2;
reputation, 112, 154;
structure of, 100, 155, 175;
fashion, 19, 97, 103, 104–106, 215n13
fate, 19, 21, 23, 24, 175, 213n7, 218n12;
heavy (số nặng), 170, 217n10
(p.235) fated attraction. See destiny
Fatherland Front, 34, 40, 43
fecundity, 81, 89, 109
feelings. See sentiment
female. See femininity; women
femininity, 70, 137;
characteristics of, 101–106, 109, 110;
compliance, 98, 104, 109;
construction of, 67, 98, 203;
and nationalism, 104;
and religiosity, 61, 62, 67, 69, 70, 117, 163, 173;
feng-shui. See geomancy
festivals (lễ hội), 8, 10, 18, 41, 130, 154, 159, 185, 201n1, 212n4
field, 13, 68, 144, 148;
Buddhist, 6, 14, 148, 152, 154–155, 158, 165, 177, 181, 184, 195, 196, 200, 203, 204, 206n8, 216n4;
religious, 139, 141–142, 143, 165, 205n7;
rules of, 143, 216n4
filial piety (hiếu), 30, 69–70, 112–114, 161, 214n9, 217n4. See also Vu Lan
Five Precepts, 4, 132
food, 82, 84, 87, 116, 130, 190, 212n6
fortune. See luck
fortune-telling (xem bói), 5, 8, 9, 10, 16, 19, 21, 24, 30, 199, 214n1;
as superstition, 34
French colonialism, 17, 39, 41, 78, 183, 185, 187, 210n6;
struggle against, 33, 38–39, 42, 159, 210n69
French language, 41, 49, 178–179, 182, 185–187, 189
friends, 124–125
funerals, 9, 16, 53, 90, 154, 161, 180;
music, 214n7;
participation of Buddhist women, 119, 128–129, 137, 214n7;
phases, 129. See also burial; chanting: at funerals
gender, 66;
construction, 6, 61, 65, 67, 71, 98, 107, 108, 117, 165, 170, 173, 201, 202, 204, 218n4;
discourses, 66, 101, 201;
dispositions, 6, 77, 201;
equality, 100, 105;
expectations, 101, 104, 170, 173, 204;
hegemony, 6, 36, 99, 176, 190, 196;
inequality, 114, 139–140, 165, 208n12;
projects, 12, 66, 67, 70, 78, 92, 99, 215n13;
public/private division, 100;
and religious participation, 3, 9, 201, 202, 205n54;
generosity, 146–148, 150, 152–154, 174, 212n6
geomancy (phòng thủy), 8, 19, 21, 122
ghost calling. See séances
ghosts, 20–23, 25, 61, 107, 199, 207n4, 208n11, 213n7;
hungry/wandering, 20, 120, 121, 207n5, 213n5;
propitiation, 30
gia đình hạnh phúc. See happy family
Giác ngộ (Tuần báo). See Enlightenment Weekly Magazine
giảng. See Dharma talks
Giáo hội phật giáo Việt Nam. See Vietnamese Buddhist Association
Giáo hội phật giáo việt nam thống nhất. See Unified Buddhist Church (of Vietnam)
gifts, 82, 94, 95, 112, 153–154;
giving, 81, 89, 93, 98, 112, 116, 202
Goffman, Erving, 148, 190, 205n7
gọi hồn. See séances
gossip, 139, 153, 154, 175, 216n6
graves, 20, 23, 30, 61, 65, 121, 122
Guanyin. See Quan Âm
guilt, 217n8
Hà, Mrs., 104
habitus, 68, 144, 152, 154, 174, 197, 205n7;
female, 201;
male, 165, 190, 196, 201
Hai Bà Trưng (Two Trưng Sisters), 35, 195
handbag, 133, 135, 146, 149, 150, 151, 215n12
hàng mã. See burnt offerings
Hạnh, 62–63, 72, 108–109
hạnh phúc gia đình. See family: happiness
Hanoi, 10;
religion in, 17
Hán-Viêt. See Sino-Vietnamese
happiness, 82, 83, 89, 90, 93;
as goal of religious practice, 38, 81, 90, 91, 94, 95, 109, 190;
wishing for, 19, 79, 115, 123–124
happy family (gia đình hạnh phúc), 89, 109–110, 213n4;
women as creators of, 103, 105, 115, 116, 123, 154, 174–175, 202
(p.236) hầu bóng. See spirit possession rituals
health, 89, 111, 113, 194;
as goal of religious practice, 19, 66, 99, 115, 124–125, 143. See also illness; wishing: for health
hegemonic masculinity, 67–71, 103, 104, 107, 160, 204, 212n5, 215n13
hegemony, 68, 78, 99;
hell (địa ngục), 25, 26, 94, 121–123 passim, 137, 170, 175;
as metaphor, 49. See also Kings of Hell; Vu Lan
heterodoxy, 25, 33, 35, 177
hiền (gentle), 104
hierarchy, 89, 94, 99, 132, 139, 152, 165, 197, 203, 215n11;
and age, 100, 139;
in communal house, 132, 139, 140, 152, 158, 185, 215n1;
cultural characteristic, 139;
in language, 139;
in pagoda, 139–140, 152, 158, 177, 191, 192, 197, 203, 215n11;
of religion, 37, 42, 203;
reproduction of, 103;
of supernatural, 31, 57, 94
hiếu. See filial piety
historical and cultural relic (di tích lịch sử văn hóa), 41
Hồ Chí Minh, 7, 18–19, 32;
deification of, 22, 26–28, 27;
as masculine model, 183
hộ pháp. See dharma guardians
Học viện phật giáo việt nam. See Vietnamese Institute of Buddhist Studies
Hội cao tuổi. See Elder People’s Association
Hội phật giáo bắc kỳ. See Tonkin Buddhist Association
hội phật tử. See pagoda association
homonymy, 83
homosexuality, 70, 76, 212n6
humor. See joking
Hùng Kings, 28, 32
hungry ghosts (ma đói). See ghosts
husbands, 66, 67, 92, 137, 147, 174, 213n8;
debt to wives, 111, 112, 116;
decisions by, 100–101, 104, 183;
finding a, 19–20, 97, 99, 101–102, 105–107, 184;
iconography, 9, 25, 31, 37, 45, 47, 48, 55, 56, 57
identity, 36, 97, 98, 136–137, 152, 158, 181, 200;
Buddhist, 2–6, 19, 119, 132–137, 141–142, 149, 151, 180;
construction of, 87, 98, 117, 196;
gender, 22, 67, 98, 102, 105, 107, 109, 117, 136–137, 207n7, 212n6;
markers, 67, 133–136, 149;
men’s, 61, 92, 162, 196;
national, 187;
projects, 5, 137, 139–140, 181;
women’s, 13, 109, 123, 137, 150, 154, 174, 181. See also gender
illness, 23, 26, 28, 29, 53, 111, 207n10. See also health
inclusion, 5, 14, 119, 123, 131, 132–137, 150, 193, 203, 214n2;
markers of, 133–137, 148–149, 158
informants, 8, 10–11;
institutions/institutionalization, 32, 34, 55, 68, 215n8;
Buddhist, 16, 23, 25, 31, 35, 38–41 passim, 44, 48, 51, 59, 140, 160, 164, 176, 208n12;
masculine, 31;
monastic, 161, 164;
of power, 36;
state, 176. See also violence
intention, 19, 72, 83–84, 143, 148, 201, 211n2
joking, 60, 61, 63, 69, 88, 101, 131, 160
karma (nghiệp), 26, 29, 93, 129, 137, 165, 167–170, 176, 177, 212n6, 217n7, 217nn9–10;
collective, 174–176, 203;
heavy karma (nặng nghiệp), 66–67, 174, 195;
immediate, 169;
multiple understandings, 167, 203;
transferable, 174–175. See also merit; women: heavier karma
Kāśyapa. See Ca Diếp
khoe. See showing off
Kiếp Bạc Temple (Đền Kiếp Bạc), 131, 215n9
Kings of Hell (Diêm Vương), 25, 27, 45, 55, 56
knowledge, 6, 149, 163, 174, 179–180, 185, 186, 189, 191–192, 195–197, 199, 203, 216n2;
indigenous, 33;
lack of, 180;
male attribute, 165, 184, 197;
Kṣitigarbha. See Địa Tạng
(p.237) la hán. See arhats
labor:
division of, 99, 103, 109, 119, 213n1;
spiritual, 116;
structure of, 99;
Lady of the Realm (Bà Chúa Xứ), 8, 30, 65
Lady of the Storehouse (Bà Chúa Kho), 8, 30, 83, 84–86, 90, 95, 130;
legend, 84–85;
Temple for (Đền Bà Chúa Kho), 85–86, 90, 130, 150
land reforms, 7, 63, 208n17
language, 49, 139, 176, 191, 197;
capacity, 59;
innovation, 205n7;
strategies, 7;
Lê, Mr., 160, 171–172, 178–181, 186, 189–191, 199, 201;
avoids chanting, 189, 204;
represents, 190;
status, 188, 204
Lễ Giỗ Tổ (pagoda ancestor feast), 53, 75, 120, 124, 134–135, 159, 190
lễ hội. See festivals
lễ phật. See prayer: to the Buddha
Lễ Vào Hè Cầu Mát. See Ritual for the Opening of Summer
legitimacy, 32–36, 39, 40, 41, 51, 57, 136, 200;
claims of, 4, 181;
of dominant group, 68;
and religion, 9, 25, 34–35, 51, 208n16;
and the state, 7, 8, 51, 136
lên đồng. See spirit possession rituals
li xi. See mừng tuổi
Liễu Hạnh, 57, 211n15
life forces (vía), 195
life-stage. See age
liturgy, 126, 127, 192, 214n3, 218nn6–7
lộc, 2, 13, 98, 99, 118, 124, 156;
as branches, 83;
characteristics, 89–95, 97–98, 117;
definition, 81–82, 95;
distributing (phát lộc), 2, 79, 81, 83, 84, 87, 88, 93, 94, 95, 98, 116, 169, 170, 199;
downward flow, 94, 213n8;
exchange, 80, 95;
for family, 80–81, 98, 109, 115–117, 202;
immediate benefit, 93;
innately powerful, 89, 91, 97, 115, 116;
for men, 71, 81, 96;
as money, 82–83, 85–86, 94, 150;
at New Year, 82–83, 94;
and ơn, 115–116;
and pilgrimages, 83–86, 109, 150;
qualities, 89–95;
reciprocal, 89, 94–95, 98;
and sentiment, 116;
as souvenirs, 84, 85, 133, 150;
in spirit possession rituals, 10, 86–89, 93;
as spirit’s benevolence, 86, 87;
as symbol of care, 116;
as talisman, 81, 83, 84, 86, 93, 95;
transferability, 89, 93–94, 98;
as women’s practice, 81, 94, 115, 202;
world affirming, 89–91, 98;
xin lộc, 88. See also transferability
local practices devalued, 32
longevity, 81, 89, 94;
ceremony, 121
luck, 28, 53, 69, 75, 81, 83, 90, 93, 115, 130, 131, 187, 202, 212n2;
bad, 29;
Buddhism for, 128, 137, 147, 169–170;
in business, 19, 72–74, 189;
buying, 116;
good, 79, 83, 84, 89, 90, 94, 108;
losing, 93;
wishing for, 82, 97, 109
Lý Dynasty, 7, 51, 84, 215n9
Lý Thánh Tông, 130, 215n8
ma đói. See ghosts: hungry
magazines:
Buddhist, 2, 18, 37–38, 40, 43, 44, 45, 135–136, 182, 199, 208n12;
women’s, 105, 110
magic, 216n2;
healing, 209n19;
sympathetic, 83. See also talismans
Mahāvagga Sūtra (Kinh phạm võng), 127
Maitreya Buddha. See Di Lặc Phật
male. See men
Mañjuśrī. See Văn Thù Sư Lợi
marginalization, 12, 16, 59, 74, 98, 103, 209n21;
of religious men, 67–71;
of women, 31, 64, 65, 99, 114, 155, 174, 188, 204, 216n1
marriage, 215n13;
imperative, 19, 97, 101–103, 105–107, 153;
problems getting, 19, 101–102, 184;
women and, 19, 184
masculinity, 61, 65, 66–67, 162, 196–197;
construction of, 67, 70, 201, 204, 218n4;
of old men, 161–165, 183, 195–196, 203, 218n2;
(p.238) materialism, 25, 28, 74, 81, 83, 89–91, 160, 161
mê tín di đoan. See superstition
media, 9, 36, 40, 110;
lampoon religion, 102;
representations of gender, 78, 104, 110
Medicine Buddha. See Dược Sư
meditation (ngồi thiền), 3–4, 18, 40, 164, 199, 214n6
men:
and abstract thinking, 183;
busier than women, 73;
career oriented, 110, 136, 203;
character, 66, 165;
doctrinal, 176, 203;
dominance over women, 71, 99–100, 203, 204;
increasing religious practice, 69, 71–77;
intellectual, 66, 74, 165, 173, 181, 183, 190, 194, 204;
interpretations of religious practice, 78, 107–108, 201;
performing rituals, 160, 191–196;
and power, 6, 68, 99–100;
rational, 165, 183, 204;
religious, 67–78;
self-reliant, 66, 161, 201–202;
and state view of religion, 64, 65;
statements of skepticism, 62, 63, 64, 98, 160, 201;
stereotypes, 67;
strong, 78;
merit (đức), 81, 91, 93, 128, 129, 131–132, 147, 169, 212n2, 213n6. See also transferability: of merit
migrant workers, 10, 60, 75, 100, 206n14
Minh, 60–62, 63, 64, 77
Minh Anh, 102
mở hang, 83
mocking. See ridicule
modernity, 51, 61–62
monasticism, 164;
Hồ Chí Minh, 183
money, 86, 89. See also offerings; spirit money
monks, 2, 7, 22–23, 38, 40, 43, 44, 50, 52, 54, 76, 100, 109, 122, 139–140, 147–149 passim, 155–156, 160–161, 165;
access to, 42;
effeminate, 69–70;
as experts, 55, 187;
famous, 18, 37, 41, 42, 145–146, 161;
homosexual, 70;
preference for, 122;
southern better than northern, 145;
as unfilial, 70
moral debt/mutual obligation (ơn), 86, 98, 110–116, 153–154;
children’s to mother, 110–111, 116, 155, 170, 214n6;
claims of, 113;
cultivating, 111–112;
definition, 111–112;
imbalance, 111–112. See also lộc
morality, 29, 30, 73, 90, 92–94, 116, 125, 127, 143, 162, 163, 169, 174, 189, 212n2, 213n7, 216n2;
blame, 106, 153, 175;
central to Buddhist practice, 172;
cultivation, 166–169, 182, 196, 199, 203. See also women
mortuary rituals. See ritual(s)
mother goddess(es) (thánh mẫu), 19, 74, 110;
shrine (nhà mẫu), 22, 31, 48, 58, 211n14. See also Phúc Lộc Pagoda
mothers, 102–104, 109, 110, 115, 136–137, 202;
debt to, 112–114;
love, 110, 113;
representing family to Buddha, 115;
suffering, 111, 114
Mount Yên Tử, 113, 130, 131
mừng tuổi, 82, 212n3
Nam, 64–65, 70, 72–75, 91;
ambiguous, 63, 74, 91
nạng căn. See spirit root, heavy
nặng nghiệp. See karma: heavy karma
New Year. See Tết Nguyên Đán
nghê giảng. See Dharma talks
nghiệp. See karma
Ngô Đình Diệm, 40, 210n9
Ngọc Hoàng, 26, 27;
Pagoda, 211n14
ngồi thiền. See meditation
Nguyen, Cuong Tu, 40
Nguyễn Lords, 7, 208n16
Nguyễn Minh Triết, President, 32, 42
Nhung, 17, 19–20, 21, 63, 77, 106–107
nirvana, 90, 168, 217
nuns, 39, 43, 52, 54, 79–80, 159, 165, 216n1, 217n4, 217n11;
donations to, 140, 213n6;
marginalized, 122, 164;
responsibilities, 194;
subservient to monks, 100, 139–140, 161, 194, 216n2. See also Thầy Tâm
offerings, 3, 63, 69, 72, 75, 77, 79, 81, 94, 97, 108, 117, 126, 160, 202;
to ancestors, 65–66, 120–121, 211n1, 212n4;
to counteract (p.239) immorality, 73;
to Earth God, 73;
expensive, 151;
to find a husband, 80, 102;
on first and fifteenth, 107;
food, 84, 91, 190, 212n4;
incense, 76, 79, 91;
money, 76, 88, 130;
order, 31;
salty, 57, 84, 130;
at spirit possession rituals, 87;
sweet, 84, 108, 130;
turned to lộc, 80;
votive, 2, 80;
old age:
activities, 123, 162, 178;
concern with death, 120–122, 162, 214n2;
diminished social roles, 123, 214n2;
and religion, 214n2. See also age; hierarchy: and age; old men; old women
old men, 162–165, 192, 196;
increased religiosity, 160, 195–196, 202;
masculinity of, 204
old women:
and religion, 175, 202–203
One Pillar Pagoda (Chùa Một Cột), 50, 211n9
Ông Địa (Earth God), 26, 72, 73, 74, 75, 91, 211n1
orthodoxy, 2, 4, 5, 25, 32, 33, 37, 55, 77, 176, 180, 189, 196, 205n6, 208n16;
male, 164, 175–177
overseas Vietnamese, 20, 38, 100, 144, 205n5, 207n4, 216n2, 217n11
pagoda (chùa), 165;
ancestors, 47, 75, 120, 124, 134, 161, 190, 216n1;
architecture, 31, 43–48, 44, 46, 47, 50, 55–58, 56;
association (hội phật tử), 18, 119, 122, 125, 128–132, 134, 137, 138–139, 145, 148, 156, 157, 207n3, 214n7, 215n11;
definition, 205n1;
egalitarian, 139, 158;
as feminine space, 160–161, 163, 182, 184;
patriarchs, 45, 55;
as representative of culture, 41;
ritual, 193;
like social club, 125;
space for homosexuals, 70;
unstructured, 132, 158. See also hierarchy: in pagoda
paradise. See Pure Land, The
Partition (1954), 34
patriarchy, 98, 112;
structures, 98, 100, 174
patrilineage, 70, 174, 175
patriotism, 35, 183. See also nationalism
penitence ritual (Sám Nguyện), 1, 52, 53, 126, 127, 135, 144, 165–169, 172, 181, 191, 193, 202, 203, 205n3;
for Buddha’s pardon, 170, 173–176;
as self-cultivation, 170, 173–176
performance, 6, 50, 59, 136, 141, 174, 205n7;
of authority, 181, 185;
of availability, 19;
capacity, 165–166;
of competence, 193;
contextual, 143;
of erudition, 172, 178;
evaluation of, 190, 191;
of expertise, 6, 165, 181;
gendered, 67, 70, 98, 105, 107, 109, 181;
of intelligence, 103;
of knowledge, 149, 165–166, 172, 177, 179, 181–185, 188, 190, 195–196, 204;
and language, 184–191, 196, 203–204;
of masculinity, 181–184;
natural, 191;
persuasiveness, 155–156, 181;
rejected, 143, 157, 181, 190;
of self-sacrifice, 109, 110, 112, 114–116;
of skepticism, 61, 62, 63–65, 70, 71, 98, 160, 201;
social, 99, 148;
of suffering, 112, 114;
weakness, 103, 107. See also audiences; authority
Perfume Pagoda (Chùa Hương), 8, 26, 83, 130
petition (sớ), 1, 22, 107, 108, 109, 187, 209n19, 218n5
Phân viện nghiên cứu phật học thuộc giáo hội. See Vietnamese Buddhist Research Institute
phát lộc. See lộc: distributing
phật tử. See Buddhists
Phổ Hiền Bồ Tát (Ch. Puxian; S. Samantabhadra), 48, 55, 211n13
phòng thủy. See geomancy
photographs, 48, 121;
with notable figures, 42, 145
Phủ Tây Hồ, 18, 19, 97
Phúc Lộc Pagoda, 11, 26, 51–57, 69, 71, 99, 124, 140, 170, 203;
architecture, 55–58, 56;
community, 52–54, 132, 178;
iconography, 55–57;
layout, 55–57, 56;
local, 52;
mother goddess shrine, 57;
not political, 54–55, 57;
rituals, 57, 135, 166–167, 188, 190–196;
spirit worship at, 37, 53–55;
(p.240) typical pagoda, 37;
volunteers, 54, 133, 159–160
pilgrimages (hành hương), 8, 18, 19, 22, 65, 83–86, 91, 108–109, 113, 129–131, 136, 138–139, 150, 199;
pseudo-pilgrimage, 10, 63, 83–84, 130, 211n2
popular religion, 16, 32, 35–36;
criticism of, 33, 34, 49;
elite control, 90;
repression of, 34
power, 65, 98, 112, 144, 152, 155, 158, 180, 181, 186, 196, 200;
female, 110;
and language, 185–187, 218n5;
male, 62, 68, 100, 160, 162, 206n15, 216n1, 218n2, 218n4;
spiritual, 218n2;
state, 8, 12, 33, 36, 64, 135–136;
structure of, 34, 99, 112, 200;
practice, 212n4;
exclusive, 4–5;
interpretations of, 12;
moral, 143;
religious, 23, 41, 71. See also Buddhist practice
prayer:
to ancestor, 16, 19;
beads, 76, 127, 133, 134, 135, 143, 149, 151;
to the Buddha (lễ phật), 19;
for family, 19, 75, 79, 97, 99, 108–109, 166. See also wishing
prestige (sĩ diện), 42, 50, 59, 100, 142, 147, 154–156, 163, 173, 179, 181;
self-cultivation and, 218n2
profit, 41, 155;
anticipation of, 158;
symbolic, 184
prosperity. See wealth
psychic healing, 20, 21
public opinion (dư luận), 106, 152–154, 158, 175
public/private, 100, 110, 193, 213n1
publishing, 2, 37, 39–45 passim, 119, 199, 210n3
Pure Land, The (Cực Lạc), 26, 90, 121, 122, 137
Pure Land Buddhism (Tịnh Độ), 26, 205n2
Quan Âm (Ch. Guanyin; S. Avalokiteśvara), 26, 29, 45, 48, 53, 55, 76, 91, 133, 145, 167, 207nn8–9
quan hệ. See relationships
Quán Sứ Pagoda, 1–3, 11, 42–51, 52, 59, 66–67, 112, 119, 126, 127–128, 128, 132, 133, 134, 145, 148, 149, 156, 169, 214n6;
architecture, 43–48, 44, 46, 47, 50;
authority of, 40, 50, 59;
behavior at, 50;
bookstore, 45, 54, 133, 136;
competition at, 140;
doctrinal, 45, 48;
history, 43–44;
iconography, 45, 48;
layout, 44, 46, 47;
library, 2, 44, 48, 181, 189;
men at, 77, 182, 184–185;
orthodox, 37;
as political, 42, 43, 51, 54, 127;
rituals, 57;
special divisions, 181;
state pagoda, 12, 37;
store, 2, 45
quê. See village, native
Quốc Ngữ. See Romanized Vietnamese script
Rahula, Walpola, 48–49
rebirth, 93, 123, 137, 217n10
recognition, 142–143, 148, 152, 154–155, 158, 163;
social, 174, 181. See also public opinion; status
reincarnation, 26, 120–121, 129, 162, 165
relationships (quan hệ), 89, 93, 95, 98, 101, 103–104, 112, 116, 176;
and gifts, 153–154;
and ơn, 111–112;
at pagoda, 124–125;
with supernatural, 95, 143, 200
releasing living beings, 109, 141
relics, 72, 147
religion(s) (tôn giáo), 9;
activities, 24;
and business, 8, 28, 30, 53, 72–75, 78, 85–86, 130, 189, 194, 204;
calendar, 28, 52–54, 79, 81, 85, 120, 130, 167, 214n1;
contextual, 23;
to ease anxiety/suffering, 107, 113, 123;
and economy, 8, 206n9;
elite view, 16, 31–36, 42, 59;
function, 99, 132;
idiosyncratic, 25;
ignorant, 74;
lack of prescription, 16–17;
legislation, 209n19;
locations, 23;
multiple approaches, 17, 25, 36, 199–200;
and nationalism, 8, 28, 41, 161;
non-exclusivity, 19, 20, 23, 126, 130, 134, 199–200;
officials, 72–73;
for peace of mind, 74, 91;
rationalist, 62;
rephrasing, 13, 65, 161, 163, 165–168;
resurgence, 8, 34, 59, 161;
and sexuality, 70, 98;
and social structure, 101;
state control, 7, 9, 90;
vs. superstition, 9, 164;
unity of, 16, 23, 25, 30, 199–200;
use by the state, 41;
as wasteful, 60–61, 64, 137, (p.241) 147, 201;
as weakness, 61, 66, 70, 98, 160;
as women’s labor, 75, 115–117;
religious belief (tín ngưỡng), 25, 35, 41, 76, 77, 92;
as percentage, 74, 91–92. See also faith
religious landscape, 16, 22, 23, 24, 34, 35, 57, 86, 131, 199, 200
Renovation (Đổi Mới), 7–8, 34, 65, 71, 77, 83, 100, 160, 209n21
repentance (sám hối), 67, 167–168, 170, 205n3
reputation (danh tiếng), 19, 38, 152–155, 216n6
Research Journal of Buddhist Studies, The (Tạp chí nghiên cứu phật học), 2, 18, 44, 119, 133, 136, 182
resistance, 101, 103, 114;
acts of, 74, 205n7, 212n4;
against China, 84. See also French colonialism
retirement, 136–137, 159, 162, 163, 178, 181, 192, 203
ridicule, 36, 60, 68, 71, 92, 96, 98, 105, 108, 215n13
risk, 68, 73, 74
ritual(s) (cúng), 53, 57, 90, 119, 160, 191, 196;
vs. chanting, 126–127, 166–167, 214n4;
family, 64;
language, 187;
mortuary, 38, 119–122, 128–129;
music, 191, 193, 218n6;
for others, 98;
of skepticism, 65;
specialists, 6, 57, 126, 163, 184, 191–196, 201, 203;
sponsoring, 53, 193;
Ritual for the Opening of Summer (Lễ Vào Hè Cầu Mát), 53, 193–194, 214n1
ritual group (ban cúng), 53, 58, 127, 160, 166, 191–196, 203, 211n11, 214n5;
men only, 192–193;
rehearsals, 192, 194, 218n8;
status of, 193
ritual master (thầy cúng), 37, 53, 54, 58, 160, 187, 188, 193, 194
romance, 104
Romanized Vietnamese script (Quốc Ngữ), 43, 127, 171, 187, 192, 193, 195, 210n6;
inscriptions, 44
rosary beads. See prayer: beads
rumors, 157
Śākyamuni Buddha. See Buddha, the
salvation, 38, 59, 137, 167, 200
sám hối. See repentance
Sám Nguyện. See penitence ritual
Samantabhadra. See Phổ Hiền Bồ Tát
sangha, 37, 70, 93, 140, 132;
donations to, 212n6
Sanskrit, 179, 186, 189
science, 49, 62;
women in, 66
séances (gọi hồn), 9, 10, 20–21, 29, 34, 61, 62, 74, 199, 207n6;
as superstition, 34, 61, 209n19
seating order, 135, 140, 158, 160, 166, 185, 193, 195, 215n11
secondary burial (bốc mộ), 120, 143
secularism, 51, 59, 61, 62, 189, 211n16
self-confidence (tự tin), 67, 164
self-cultivation (tu thân), 62, 161, 163–165, 169, 173–177, 191, 196, 202, 204, 216n2;
as masculine ideal, 183–184, 218n2
self-reliance (tự lực), 61, 66, 78, 103, 164, 173, 189, 201–202, 216n2
self-sacrifice, 93, 103, 109–116, 202;
as leverage, 110, 114
sentiment (tình cảm), 86, 95–96, 98, 116;
ơn and, 112. See also lộc
sexuality, 70–71, 99, 102, 104, 137, 212n6, 215n13;
and religiosity, 70, 98. See also homosexuality
shopping, 19, 69
showing off (khoe), 139, 141, 149, 155–156
silence, 7, 180, 201
sin. See transgression
Sino-Vietnamese (Hán-Viêt), 126, 127, 171, 179, 192, 218n1;
ritual language, 186, 187
skepticism, 3, 17, 21, 60–61, 84, 201;
as elite view, 62;
men as, 71, 92, 98, 160;
as religious expression, 62–64;
rituals of, 64–66;
statements of, 71, 74, 119
smoking, 62, 63, 211n1
(p.242) sớ. See petition
số nặng. See fate: heavy
social:
evils, 127;
mobility, 64–65, 98, 185, 186;
pressure, 101–102, 105, 107;
stigma, 65
sons, 154, 174;
duties to parents, 70;
praying for, 130
soteriological goal, 83, 89, 91
specialists. See experts
speech:
acts, 66, 67, 184;
authoritative, 178–179, 188, 201;
soft, 106
spirit mediums (spirit callers), 22–23, 70, 79, 122, 130, 187, 188, 207n7, 212n6;
call to become, 22, 29, 207n10;
credibility, 21, 62
spirit money (vàng mã), 2, 8, 79, 205n4;
borrowing, 85–86;
burning (đốt ), 38, 49, 79;
elite view, 49;
state view, 37;
as superstition, 34, 61
spirit possession rituals (lên đồng or hầu bóng), 5–6, 8, 10, 20, 53, 57, 70, 90, 107, 145, 157, 187, 188, 199, 200, 211n15, 217n10;
description, 87;
men’s participation in, 76;
repression of, 64, 208n17, 209n18;
as superstition, 34, 209n18. See also lộc: in spirit possession rituals
spirit root, heavy (nạng căn), 23, 217n10
spirit side (bên thánh), 25–31, 27, 39, 55, 57, 62, 65, 200;
motivation, 30;
this-worldly, 28
spirits, 22, 27, 53, 87–88, 115;
blessing, 82, 87–89, 90, 136;
dangerous/fickle, 29, 65, 200;
dual nature, 28;
elite view of, 59;
malevolent, 94;
potency, 85, 86, 94;
worship of, 23, 38;
writing Chinese, 187, 188
sponsoring, 53, 132, 193
state, the:
as masculine, 9, 61, 208n12;
and religion, 7–9, 31, 32–34, 61, 64–65, 175, 206n11, 209n19;
secular, 62;
view of Buddhism, 34, 48, 51, 199;
view of Catholicism, 34;
and women, 110. See also legitimacy: and the state; power
statuary. See iconography
status (địa vị), 6, 140, 142–143, 146–149, 154–155, 158, 180, 185, 196, 203–204, 213n6;
age and, 139, 215n11;
male, 177, 193;
markers, 140, 162, 187. See also hierarchy; prestige; recognition
stigma, 65, 218n4
strength, 13, 61, 70–71, 164;
male, 78, 103, 201
structure, 212n4;
monastic, 139;
resilient, 99, 101. See also cathexis; gender; labor; power
study, 127, 164, 172, 189, 191, 193–196, 202–203;
as male practice, 182–184, 187–190, 204
submissiveness, 103–104
subordination, 68, 71, 103, 114
success:
in career, 109, 204;
in examinations, 99, 164, 187
suffering, 21, 26, 39, 90, 169;
in afterlife, 20, 21, 62, 121, 210n1;
“from a lack of a husband” (bị ế chồng), 106;
women’s, 111–114
Sùng Phúc Thiền Tự, 18, 206n1, 214n6
supernatural, 59, 91;
assistance, 5, 92, 137;
benevolence, 82;
buddhas as part of, 31, 40, 200;
dangerous, 29, 65, 200;
elite view, 32, 35;
holistic view, 200;
imminent, 22, 35, 64, 89;
interactions with, 16;
potency, 20, 25, 35, 41, 62, 83, 91–95 passim, 116, 117, 130, 156, 200, 207n9;
reciprocity with, 30, 38, 82, 86, 89;
reliance on, 66, 173;
unsystematic, 21, 35;
superstition (mê tín di đoan), 3, 9, 22–23, 25, 48, 49, 57, 160, 196;
Communist view, 34, 175;
denigration, 161, 189;
elite view, 33;
labeled as, 159;
outdated, 38, 71;
self-definition, 97, 115, 199;
unacceptable, 35;
supplication. See wishing
sutra recitals, 124, 126, 132, 134, 135, 137, 193, 195, 199, 203;
schedule, 167, 214n1. See also chanting
sutras, 126, 144, 151, 168, 214n3;
in Chinese, 194;
comprehension, 171–173, 188–189;
reciting sutras, 199
symbolic meaning, 41, 180
Tai Chi, 53, 123, 162, 178–179
Taiwan (Republic of China), 48, 74, 95, 149, 174, 207n9, 208n11, 214n8
Taixu, 39
(p.243) talismans, 22;
paper (bùa), 5;
as superstition, 34. See also charms; lộc: as talisman
tam đạo/tam giáo. See three religious traditions
Tam thế phật (Buddhas of the Past, Present and Future), 55
Tạp chí nghiên cứu phật học. See Research Journal of Buddhist Studies, The
Taylor, Charles, 211n16
Temple of Literature (Văn Miếu), 215n8
Tết Nguyên Đán (Lunar New Year), 82–83, 86, 94, 121
text, 135–136, 196, 218n5. See also writing
thần. See tutelary genii
Thanh, Mrs., 17, 20–22, 61
thánh mẫu. See mother goddess(es)
Thảo, 97, 115, 125, 135, 171, 199
thầy cúng. See ritual master
Thầy Linh, 22–23, 52, 131, 144, 145;
as spirit medium, 22, 37, 52, 58, 76
Thầy Pagoda, 63, 85
Thầy Tâm, 22, 28, 52, 57, 59, 70, 115, 131, 145, 167, 172, 173, 180, 186, 190, 194;
management of pagoda, 37, 54–55, 57–58;
performing rituals, 188, 192–195
Thích Ca Mâu Ni Phật. See Buddha, the
Thích Nhất Hạnh, 42, 43, 164
Thích Thanh Từ, 14, 134, 164, 206n1
Thích Thanh Tứ, 42, 145, 210n5
Thích Thiên Ân, 164
Thiện, Mr., 63, 65;
skeptical, 63
Thiền Uyển Tập Anh (Compendium of Outstanding Figures of the Zen Garden), 39–40
Thiên Y A Na, 211n15
Three Refuges, 4, 132
three religious traditions (V. tam đạo or tam giáo; Ch. san jiao), 33, 34, 35, 179, 209n18
Three Submissions (tam tòng), 67
Tịch, Colonel, 182, 190
tín ngưỡng. See religious belief
tình cảm. See sentiment
Tịnh Độ. See Pure Land Buddhism
Toàn, Mr., 172
tôn giáo. See religion(s)
Tonkin Buddhist Association (Hội phật giáo bắc kỳ), 39, 40, 43
Torch of Wisdom (Đuốc tuệ), 43
tourism, 50, 84, 105, 130, 209n20, 210n4
Trăm Gian Pagoda, 49
Trần Dynasty, 7, 39
Trần Hưng Đạo, 18, 26, 28, 35, 87, 208n17, 215n9
Trần Nhân Tông, 131
Trần Văn Giáp, 39–40, 210n2
transferability:
of authority, 59;
blessings, 84;
of capital, 206n8;
of merit, 115–116, 125, 170, 174, 210n1;
of potency of lộc, 89, 93–94, 98, 117
transgression (tội lỗi), 167, 169, 176, 217n6
Trí Hải, 43
Trịnh Lords, 7
Trung, Mr., 159–160, 162–163, 165, 168, 179, 192
tu thân. See self-cultivation
tụng kinh. See chanting: sutras
tutelary genii (thần), 14
Two Trưng Sisters. See Hai Bà Trưng
Ullambana. See Vu Lan
uncertainty, 8
Unified Buddhist Church (of Vietnam) (Giáo hội phật giáo việt nam thống nhất), 40, 210n9
uniforms, 132, 134–135, 137, 145, 146, 148, 158. See also prayer: beads; robes
uterine family, 174–175, 214n8
Văn Miếu. See Temple of Literature
Văn Thù Sư Lợi (Ch. Wenshu; S. Mañjuśrī), 48, 55, 211n13
vàng mã. See spirit money
Vẽ Pagoda, 75, 134
Veblen, Thorstein, 142–143, 152, 155
vegetarianism, 131, 133, 145, 147, 149, 215n10
Vesak, 43, 48
Vietnam Women’s Union, 110
Vietnamese Buddhist Association (Giáo hội phật giáo Việt Nam), 11, 31, 37, 40, 43, 208n12;
Central Committee, 42, 44–45;
Central Management Council, 44;
Sangha Council, 44
Vietnamese Buddhist Research Institute (p.244) (Phân viện nghiên cứu phật học thuộc giáo hội), 44, 181
Vietnamese Institute of Buddhist Studies (Học viện phật giáo việt nam), 44, 210n8
village, native (quê), 18
violence, 99;
institutionalized, 36, 209n21
virilocality, 174
virtue, 170, 174, 186, 212n2
volunteers, 54, 119, 123, 124, 133, 138, 139, 148–149, 154, 157, 159–160
votive objects. See burnt offerings
Vu Lan, 38, 210n1
war dead, veneration of, 35
wastefulness, 71, 90. See also religion(s): as wasteful
weakness (yếu đuối), 61, 70, 78, 98, 101;
religion as, 201–202
wealth, 28, 66, 82, 83, 89, 90, 99, 124, 143, 175, 189;
wishing for, 79, 202
weddings, 9, 10, 19, 90, 94, 153–154
wishing, 19, 23, 76, 79, 95, 115, 124, 160, 202;
of buddhas, 201;
to find a husband, 80, 97, 99, 102;
goal of, 19, 28, 72, 90;
to have children, 109;
for health, 19, 28, 72, 97, 99, 108, 109, 189;
of spirits, 201. See also happiness; wealth
wives, 213n8;
following husbands, 104, 110, 184;
as “generals of the interior,” 100;
serving husbands, 103, 114
Wolf, Arthur, 208n11
women:
in Buddhist structure, 208n12;
caring, 98, 109, 115–116;
characteristics, 110;
competition, 139–142;
deference to men, 109;
don’t study, 194;
emotional, 165, 204;
exclusion from ritual, 192–193;
and families, 104, 109, 110, 115–116, 154, 174, 193, 214n8;
identity with children, 174–175;
images of, 105;
intelligence, 195;
lack of linguistic capacity, 59, 180, 188, 194–195;
as leaders, 66, 144, 145, 151, 154–157 passim;
less intelligent, 66, 74, 165, 181, 183, 201, 204;
and money, 183;
morality, 66;
nature, 61;
not technical, 66;
old, 69;
participation in Buddhism, 3, 9, 10, 81, 117, 128, 142, 164, 166, 170;
position in family, 114, 214n8;
and power, 100–101, 110, 114, 156–157;
practices, 64, 65, 98, 181, 194;
and public opinion, 153–154;
reliance, 66, 98;
religious, 66, 78, 96, 99, 118;
responsibilities, 103, 137;
subordination, 68, 71, 103, 114, 183, 203;
superstitious, 34, 36, 39, 61, 70, 97, 160, 205n54;
weaker sex (phái yếu), 66–67, 78, 98, 101, 107. See also marginalization: of women; marriage
Women’s Club (hội phụ nữ), 100
working consensus, 190
world affirmation, 19, 20, 25, 89–91
world religions:
as legitimate, 32–33, 39
world renunciation, 91
worship, 130;
historical figures/heroes, 19, 26
writing:
as masculine, 196, 218
xem bói. See fortune-telling
Xuân, Mrs., 52, 144–146, 149
Ỷ Lan, 19
Yến, 101–102, 104
yin and yang (V. âm and dương), 88, 139, 178, 186, 218n3
young men, 195–196;
ambiguous about religion, 75, 91;
increase in religious practice, 71;
losing culture, 161;
mocking religion, 60, 68, 160, 201;
views of religion, 60, 62, 67, 75, 77;
zealous, 64
young women:
not in pagoda association, 125–126;
Zen Buddhism, 33, 39–40, 41, 130, 131, 134, 164–165, 215nn8–9, 217n3