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Diversity in DiasporaHmong Americans in the Twenty-First Century$
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Mark Edward Pfeifer, Monica Chiu, and Kou Yang

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824835972

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824835972.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM HAWAII SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hawaii.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hawaii University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HSO for personal use.date: 05 August 2021

The American Experience of the Hmong

The American Experience of the Hmong

A Historical Review

(p.3) 1 The American Experience of the Hmong
Diversity in Diaspora

Kou Yang

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter is a comprehensive historical review of thirty-four years of Hmong American experience, categorized into three distinct periods of Hmong acculturation. In the refugee years (1975–1991), Hmong difficulties adjusting to American culture, combined with their lack of linguistic and technical skills, promoted both a dependence on the welfare system and a rise in Hmong mutual assistance associations. During the turning point or transitional period (1992–1999), political participation advocating for community welfare became vital for these new U.S. citizens. In the current phase, the Hmong American Period (2000 and ongoing), bilingual members of the second and third generation identify as American but intend to honor and preserve Hmong culture; they invest in education, advocate for political leadership, produce cultural artifacts, and defend their rights as legal citizens. The chapter concludes by profiling several Hmong Americans, outlining challenges facing the Hmong American community.

Keywords:   historical review, Hmong American experience, Hmong American history, Hmong American Period, Hmong American community, citizenship, Hmong acculturation, refugees

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