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Burning MoneyThe Material Spirit of the Chinese Lifeworld$

C. Fred Blake

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780824835323

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824835323.001.0001

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(p.263) Index

(p.263) Index

Source:
Burning Money
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
Ahern, Emily Martin, 15, 80, 106, 224n7, 231n10
Aijmer, Göran, 79
alchemy, 3, 86, 101, 227n16
alienation, 109, 111, 169, 207, 209, 213, 214
Amin, Samir, 7
ancestor (zŭxiān):
altar, hall, tomb, 22, 47, 57, 166, 184;
and paper money, 23, 27, 28, 40, 45, 46, 57, 68, 71, 76, 166, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188, 190, 219n11;
regard for, 23, 40, 46, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188;
as spirits, 21, 22, 76, 104, 112, 233n3
Anderson, Perry, 102, 103, 230n6
animus:
in commodities, 107, 108, 194, 204, 207, 208–209;
in social economies, 200, 201, 202, 204–205
Appadurai, Arjun, 110, 119, 207, 228n1, 229n5
artifice, 21, 93, 105, 115, 119, 126, 172, 173, 180, 199, 210, 213, 214
authenticity, 105, 113, 115, 119, 121, 143, 174, 178, 199, 203;
distinguished from realism, 49, 171, 172, 173, 178, 180, 203, 210;
and ritual effectiveness, 31, 44, 72, 105, 133, 171, 173;
of the fake, 180, 199;
of the world, 213, 214. See also realism
Bachelard, Gaston, 6, 76, 84
Bai Juyi, 53, 221n2
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 6, 28, 227n15
BaMbuti, 204;
molimo, 203
Bataille, Georges, 184
Baudrillard, Jean, 5, 14, 119, 168, 182, 184, 190
belief:
concept of, 7, 19, 20, 21–22;
about paper money, 13, 31, 57;
suspension of, 4
Belk, Russell, 204
Benjamin, Walter, 6, 142, 173
Bergson, Henri, 158
Binswanger, Ludwig, 5
Block, Melissa, 12
blogosphere. See internet
Boas, Franz, 199
Bodhisattva. See Buddha
boisterous mood (rènao), 79, 86, 184. See also jocund mood
Book of Rites (Liji), 63–65, 72, 78, 80, 170, 199
brands and logos, 14, 35, 179, 186, 189, 190, 214, 217n4. See also corporation; exotic offerings
Brown, Elizabeth, 99, 229n22
Bücher, Karl, 125
Buddha:
as Earth Treasury Bodhisattva, 155;
as Guanyin, 30, 41, 80, 106, 134, 155;
as Maitreya, 128;
as Mílèfó, 41;
not connected to paper money custom, 66, 133;
and paper money custom, 23, 30–31, 38, 41, 45, 63, 66, 69, 71, 72, 128, 130, 131, 133, 136, 200;
and paper money iconography, 131–132, 136, 149, 150, 152–155, 163–164;
and printing, (p.264) 38, 63, 65, 74, 104;
and purgatory, 28, 77, 104, 130, 152, 153, 216n1;
as Shakyamuni, 149, 155;
and Shanghai, 133, 164–165, 200;
spirit and religion of, 24, 31, 41, 63, 66, 74, 154, 216n7;
and spirit masters of, 28, 30, 104;
temples for, 23, 30, 38, 41, 106, 128, 130, 133–134, 216n1;
texts (scripture, talisman) of, 38, 63, 65, 71, 132, 150, 163–165, 216n1, 223n13, 235n7
bundles (bāofu), 120, 122, 126. See also paper money, folded forms of
burial ground:
decorating gravestones in, 16, 27, 53, 191–192, 195;
grave stones in, 27, 191, 195;
netherworld residence in, 18, 61, 181;
paper money vendors at, 133, 158, 165, 179–180, 190, 194;
picnic at, 227n18;
sacrificing in, 2, 11, 34, 57, 60, 64–65, 77, 120, 122, 134, 137, 166–167, 175, 176–177, 184, 186, 191–192, 199, 233n4
Burke, Kenneth, 6
Burkert, Walter, 118
burning paper:
need for complete immolation, 117, 122–123, 138, 216n6, 233n5, 236n1;
opposition to, 2, 41, 70–71, 73–74;
as play, 167;
same as burning money, 73;
to signify the donor’s identity, 72, 74;
as terms for paper money, 2, 36;
to vent remorse, 17, 56–58, 120, 222n8. See also fire
Cai Lun, 55, 221n5n6, 223n16
candle:
flame of, 76, 84, 86–88, 91, 93, 132, 228n23;
as signifier of sacred space, 5, 78–79, 81–86, 88–93, 225n8, 228n24;
use in ritual service, 12, 22, 41, 172, 186, 191, 216n9
canonical order of paper money, 3, 77, 79, 82, 89, 92–93, 117, 210. See also liturgical order
capital:
as destructive force, 196;
as emolument () and wealth (cái), 94, 103;
factor of production, 47, 49, 157;
in feudal (and other precapitalist) formations, 94, 97, 99, 103, 105–114, 204–211, 213–214, 229n5, 231n8;
modern formation of, 4–5, 40, 52, 98, 107, 109–114, 168, 174, 204–211, 213–214, 229nn4–5, 230n6;
“symbolic” form of, 178. See also ideology; mode of production
Carlyle, Thomas, 96, 207, 228n1
cash, round, square-holed, strung:
auguring fates, 35;
compared to ghost bills, 167–168;
embedded in daily discourse, ritual architectonics, imperial architecture, 36, 217n4, 218n7, 219n8, 229n4;
as facial physiognomy, 95;
history of, 66–67, 70, 218n5, 222n11, 228n1, 233n5;
paired with yuánbăo (First Treasure), 36, 42, 137, 154, 217n4;
as paper shroud for tombstone, 27;
as real money, 28, 35, 37, 96, 98, 102–103, 109, 110, 119;
replicated as paper money, 13, 27, 28–37, 38, 40, 42, 50, 66, 70, 97, 120, 129, 146–147, 168, 217n2;
replicating cosmic flow, 35–36, 50, 96, 97, 111, 114;
and signifiers of social hierarchy, 29, 37, 40, 104, 167;
therapeutic use of, 217n3
cash nexus, 50, 107, 109, 207;
definition of, 96, 98, 228n1;
of highly developed feudal formation, 98, 102–103, 109, 114;
the lifeworld as, 95–96, 107
Cave, Roderick, 15
cemeteries. See burial ground
ceremonial giving (), 68, 72, 139, 198–199, 202
charm ():
of cash, 35–37 passim, 95, 217n4;
commanding function of, 106;
expediting delivery of good fortunes, 11, 15, 22, 26, 200;
of First Treasure, 137, 217n4;
of gold, 39;
preserving part of the modern lifeworld as, 143;
(p.265) prophylactic functions of, 23, 54;
specific examples of, 34, 41–42, 94, 130, 154, 217n4;
type of paper money, 16, 28, 45, 154, 200
Cheng Yichuan (1033–1107), 68
chiasm (flesh of the world), 21, 24, 75, 82, 85, 87, 115, 122, 125, 165
children:
afraid of family ghosts, 19;
awareness of paper money, 10;
as beneficiaries of paper money, 12–13, 34–35, 188;
birth, maturation, and death of, 12–13, 34, 188;
burning paper money, 32, 166–167, 177;
consigned to a mundane mortality, 208;
and folding paper money, 132, 133;
importance of, 40, 42–43, 45, 94, 155, 184–185, 199, 202, 217n2,234n8;
and intercorporeality, 126, 202;
in new urban folklore, 183;
oracle power of, 11;
recipients of lucky cash, 217n2;
in the arms of Emolument, 42–43
Christian, 15, 18–19, 23, 24, 77, 139, 229n4
cigarettes, paper simulated, 179, 189, 190. See also exotic offerings
civilization, Chinese project of, 50, 94, 100, 101, 114, 115, 141, 166, 182, 194, 211, 233n16
Codere, Helen, 196
Cold Food, festival, 53
commoditization, 109;
and decommoditization, 162;
distinguished from monetization, 96, 111, 228n1
commodity:
in capitalist periphery, 206, 208, 209;
definition of, 229n5;
distinguished from good, 99, 110, 204;
fetish nature of, 108, 204, 207, 208, 209;
as form of reification, 141, 204, 207;
as germ of ideology, 108, 204, 207, 209;
in modern capital, 96, 107, 108, 110, 113, 114, 141, 204, 205, 208, 209;
paper money as, 73, 105, 106, 162, 165, 192–193, 206;
in precapitalist formations, 99, 108, 110, 111, 204, 205;
in regimes of values, 10, 124, 137, 165. See also capital; fetish
common ritual service, 3, 5, 76–93 passim, 117, 118, 226n12;
compared to Genesis, 77, 89;
as language of the senses, 79;
shifting mood of, 5, 78–79, 184;
ultimate sacred postulate of, 82, 84
commonsense, 20, 79, 84, 110, 115;
in relation to magic, 115. See also lifeworld
communism:
compared to the capitalist juggernaut, 196;
as form of state capitalism, 232n13;
and journalism, 171;
paper iconography of, 24;
and paper money custom, 15;
realized in the yīn-world, 104;
and religion, 22, 171;
as vanishing mediator, 113, 171, 210
Confucius:
and paper money, 63, 67–75, 139, 154, 185, 186, 223n3;
precepts and admonitions of, 5, 21, 63–65, 67–69, 75, 231n9;
as statecraft (ritualized hegemony), 100–101, 113;
used in word game about money, 219n8. See also Book of Rites
consecration:
the act of, 117, 119;
bloodless sacrifice of, 120;
blood offering of, 121;
the production of spiritual value, 119, 125, 165;
the restoration of sensual value, 123–124, 127, 165;
of sacred ground, 78;
by touching, pressing, fanning, folding, 4, 86, 116, 123–124, 125, 128, 130, 165. See also folding paper objects; sacrifice
consumption:
in balance with production, 111;
economy based on, 14, 109, 180, 184;
in Gawan society, 202;
and paper money, 189;
politics and poetics of, 7
convivial tools, 32, 203
Cooper, Eugene, 199, 234n6
corporation:
based global capital, 214;
brands and logos, 35, 186, 189–190;
of Hell with limited liability printed on ghost bills, 153–154. See also exotic offerings
correlative thinking, 82
cosmic and compensative justice, 104, 229n4
(p.266) counterfeits, forgeries, fakes, 58, 65, 67, 145, 152, 159, 170, 172–173, 182, 189;
authenticity of, 180
credit cards. See exotic offerings
Cultural Revolution, 15, 17, 47, 150, 196
custom, common:
paper money as, 10
Dao Mau (mother goddess), 200, 208
Day, Clarence, 15, 22
dead, the:
as defiling, 39;
difference between the living and, 20–21, 64, 67, 94, 96–97, 202;
disrespecting, 183;
restoring life to, 57–58;
reunion with living, 40, 84, 117;
as sentient beings, 64, 67, 177;
soul of, 28, 80;
treating an adversary as, 178. See also yáng-world
Dean, Kenneth, 2
deception:
different modes of, 109;
in exchange between ghosts and living persons, 75;
in modern system of production and exchange, 207;
in nature of artifice, 199;
in origin of paper money custom, 57–58, 62
deconstruction. See methodologies and techniques
dialectics:
and chiasm, 21;
in China’s feudal mode of production, 99, 111–112, 115, 233n16;
conciliation versus paradox in, 99, 103, 105, 111–112, 115;
in cultural formation of paper money, 145, 169;
Hegelian, 99, 103, 233n16;
of history and experience, 116, 140;
in the author’s overall argument, 5, 214;
in the social animus, 204–205. See also yīnyáng
divining blocks, 106, 231n10
dollars, facsimiles of, 106, 147, 150, 156–157, 162, 163;
Carolus, 13, 215n3;
U.S., 143, 156, 157, 159;
Yuan Shikai silver, 13. See also Měijīn (American money)
Doolittle, Justus, 13–14, 15
Dore, Henri, 14, 15
Double Nine festival, 122
Douglas, Mary, 7, 79
dreams:
and candle flame, 76, 84, 88;
entrusted, 1, 17–19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 104, 216n6, 236n1;
existential versus positive reality in, 90;
and incense, 89, 90;
recognition of the Money Spirit in, 95;
related to myth, 60
Duan Chengshi (803–863), 66
Durkheim, Emile, 76, 134
Ebrey, Patricia, 33, 67, 68, 69, 72, 223n3, 224n4
Eco, Umberto, 180
economics, science of, 5, 7, 109, 114, 115, 141, 207, 209, 232n13
eidetic meaning and value, 4, 137
Eliot, George, 125
emptiness of folders and the folded, 105–107, 135, 137, 138, 141. See also consecration; folding paper objects; gold
Engels, Frederick, 98–99, 110, 204, 232n13
enthrallment of ordinary people:
in imperial order, 63, 74, 115;
in mysteries of rank, 73, 74;
and self-recognition as such, 74. See also mystification
E.T. (The Extra-Terrestrial), 142, 169
ethnic minorities:
Miao, 31;
Tu, 14;
Tujia, 21;
Yao, 21
Evans-Pritchard, E. E., 7, 138, 224n6, 233n2, 234n11
exchange value:
as abstract value, 124, 140, 141, 162, 229n5, 231n12;
converting into other forms of value, 123–124, 137, 210;
converting other forms into, 134, 227n22;
as money form of value, 37, 110, 146, 147, 148;
printed on ghost bills, 147, 148, 162, 168;
in regimes of value, 119, 162, 168. See also value, types of
exegesis of paper monies, native, 29, 33, 65, 104, 226n12
exorcising petty persons (bài xiăorén), 190–191
exotic offerings (lìnglèi jìpĭn):
entertainment value of, 170, 175, 179, 183, 184, 187;
figment of the blogosphere, 171, 179, (p.267) 182, 183, 188;
government’s attempts to control, 103–104, 171, 179, 192–194;
grist for humor mills, 103–104, 171, 179, 182–183, 186;
index of social ills, 189;
origins of, 170, 178, 179;
popular attitudes toward, 182, 183, 191, 193, 195–196;
role of media in reporting, 170–171, 179, 181, 188, 191–196. See also brands and logos; ludic spirit; sex
exploitation of labor power:
definitive feature of mode of production, 98, 101–102, 208, 209;
in form of commodity, the germ of ideology, 108;
mollified differently under different modes of production, 101–102, 108, 109, 111, 112, 115, 141, 204, 232n14;
in structuring gender, 205–206. See also labor; labor power; mode of production
exploitation of superstitious fears against the law, 178
face, social, 101, 184
Family Ritual (Jiali), 68, 69, 223n3, 224n4
făshī (vernacular Taoist spirit master). See spirit masters
fertility:
symbol and motif of, 43, 101, 126, 137, 184–185, 234n6;
of the soil, 101, 177, 227n22
fetish:
modalities and nature of, 107–109, 111, 174, 175, 204, 207, 208, 209;
of money and commodity, 107–109, 159, 175, 207, 208, 209, 219n8;
of objects, 162, 203;
paper money as, 111, 174, 209–210;
sexual, 111, 203, 206
Feuchtwang, Stephen, 7, 11, 51
feudal formation, the Chinese:
characteristics of, 99–103 passim, 112, 115, 140, 209, 210, 229n5;
compared to European counterpart, 103, 115, 229n3, 230n6;
encounter with European capital, 4, 112–113;
highly developed form of, 3, 100, 112, 114, 115, 139, 204, 209;
and importance of markets, 102;
and mode of production, 98–99, 100, 101–102, 114, 115, 140;
reflected in paper money custom, 40, 51–52, 94, 102, 106–107, 114, 139, 168;
sumptuary rules of, 40, 51;
and transformation into modern capital formation, 112–113, 169, 210, 229n5
filial piety (xiào):
of a daughter, 40, 221n7;
expressed in memorial offerings, 68, 70, 71;
heart of paper money offerings, 199;
ideology of TMP, 97;
and loyalty to imperial family, 100–101;
in ludic tales of Taoist funeral narratives, 224n5;
propriety of certain offerings as expression of, 195. See also piety of the flesh
film stars, paper replicas of, 64, 188. See also exotic offerings
Fine, Ben, 7
fire:
agent of sublimation, 3, 83, 127, 221n2;
as hazard, 2, 210;
modes of combustion/transmutation of, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88–92, 124, 127, 137–138, 227n20;
as phase of yīnyáng, 3, 42, 83, 226n14;
ritual analogue of phenomenological brackets, 4, 124, 127, 137–138;
ritual management of, 26, 34, 41, 117, 118, 120, 121, 127, 167, 233n5;
signifying transition, 1, 4, 16, 54, 56–57, 83, 226n13;
as species means of domesticity and humanity, 32, 53, 93;
starters, 32, 34, 166. See also burning paper; candle; firecrackers; food; incense
firecrackers:
acoustic modality in sublimation of ritual materials, 83–90 passim;
semiotics of, 90–93;
ultimate phase of ritual service, 78–82 passim;
to ward off demonic forces, 13
First Treasure (yuánbăo):
analogue of dumplings and bound feet, 126–127, 141;
attached to Mao charm, 217n4;
depicted on paper monies, 36, 42, 154, 162;
folded paper ingots of, 38, 122, 129, 131, 132, 134, 135, 137, 138, 141, 166;
interdiction of, 194;
meaning of, 129, 138, 140–141, 219n9;
representing wealth in form of silver or gold, 51;
shape of, 137
five relationships (wǔlún), 101
flour flowers, 16
(p.268) flower garden (huāyuán), 34–35
folding paper objects:
compared to other forms of folding objects, 126–127;
experience of, 4, 122, 125, 126, 134–135 passim, 138–141;
individual styles of, 26, 131, 132, 134–135, 137;
regional variations in, 136, 137;
food:
in Buddhist blessing, 216n1;
central phase of the common ritual service, 82–83, 84, 85, 87;
decomposed residue of, 227n22;
and feasts, 225n10;
and incense offerings in classical Confucian text, 223n3;
metabolic communion with spirits, 22, 78, 79–80, 84, 85, 87, 93, 117;
as mode of ritual sublimation, 83, 86, 87–90;
as mode of signification, 91–93;
replicated in paper, 225n11;
requested in entrusted dreams, 17–18;
semiotic richness of, 225n9, 228n24;
some say not necessary for offering to higher divinities, 39, 107
footbinding, 4, 40, 63, 101, 108, 111, 119, 126, 140, 206, 209, 221n7
form and substance, 21
four great leaders, the, 150, 158, 160–161. See also Mao Zedong
Frazer, James, 146–147, 226n13
Gates, Hill, 15, 16, 51, 95, 96, 97, 98, 105, 114
gender differences, structuring:
in Buddhism, 216n1;
a function of the phallic signifier, 126, 206;
by ritual in social economies, 205, 231n9
Gennep, Arnold van, 82, 224n7
ghost bills (guĭpiào;
otherworld bank notes), 51, 61, 107, 113–114, 120, 122, 133, 142–169 passim, 170, 173–179 passim
ghost festivals, 2, 9, 38, 59, 174
gift economies, 201, 232n14;
lists, 69, 96, 228n2
God (supernatural), 89, 139, 141, 233n2;
in the American motto, 142, 157, 159
Godelier, Maurice, 204
gods (shén), as bankers, 15, 98, 102, 107
gold (jīn):
in form of ghost bill, 154;
as generic term for paper money, 10, 42;
as metaphor for excrement, 227n22;
paper replicas of, 13, 14, 23, 26, 27, 36–37, 38, 39–50 passim, 51, 65, 105, 106, 130, 132, 134–135, 136, 191, 220n17, 234n7;
purifying properties of, 28–29, 31, 39–40, 86, 104–105, 106–107, 122, 127, 137;
as real currency, 28, 39;
social ranks distinguished by types of, 40, 42, 45, 51, 217n2, 219n11, 220n12, 232n14
good. See commodity
Graeber, David, 7, 121, 196, 201, 205, 220n1, 231n9
grave goods, 64–65, 67–68, 74, 221n3, 222n11. See also burial ground
grave stones. See burial ground
Great Leap Forward, 22
Gregory, Christopher, 204, 205
Groot, J. J. M. de, 14, 15, 37, 65, 67, 68, 69, 72, 106, 217n2, 219n10, 222nn10–11, 228n2, 233n5
G-spot device (G-diăn tào). See sex
Guanyin. See Buddha
Guan Yu, 101
guardian spirits of the bed (chuángshén), 34. See also flower garden
guìrén fú. See Noble Benefactor Charm
Guiyuansi (Buddhist temple), Hanyang, Hubei, 128, 130
Gulik, R. H. van, 182
guns. See weapons
Han Suyin, 227n22
Harvey, David, 7
He Bingdi, 38
Heesterman, J. C., 53, 119
(p.269) Hegel, Wilhelm Friedrich, 7, 99, 103, 111, 115, 205, 233n16
hegemony, 22, 63, 100–101, 171, 179, 196, 232n13;
resistance to, 7, 63, 214. See also ideology
Heidegger, Martin, 5
Heilbroner, Robert L., 204
Hell Bank Note, 120, 146, 151–155 passim, 157, 159, 160, 163. See also ghost bills
high-and low-frequency regions of human experience, 87
historical materialism, 3–4, 8, 94–116 passim, 118, 124, 140, 141
Hollywood, 69
Hong Mai (1123–1202), 69
Hou Ching-Lang, 3, 6, 15, 16, 39, 40, 42, 66, 67, 94, 145, 217n2, 219n11, 220n12, 223n13, 235n3
house spirits (jiāshén), 32, 41
Hsu, Tsan Hwa, 75
Hubert, Henri, 118, 224n4, 233n3
human nature, 7, 140–141, 168, 198, 204, 210, 226n14, 229n4
humor in the paper money custom:
essential element of the custom, 3, 5, 54, 158;
evoked in the realism of modern simulations, 145, 146, 185;
expressed in conversation of local official, 234n7;
expressed in folk and liturgical narratives, 62, 224n5;
grist for scoffers, satirists, and parodists, 161, 168–169, 171, 179, 185, 188, 194, 197;
manifest in frissons of disbelief, 161, 169;
as pervasive sensibility, 196–197. See also ludic spirit
Hunt, George, 199
Hunter, Dard, 14, 15, 51, 65, 145, 215n4, 217n4
Husserl, Edmund, 4, 5, 8, 115, 124
hyperreality, 14, 147, 180, 182, 183
hypertrophy of forms, 14, 27, 45, 51, 168, 217n2
identity:
of donors and recipients, 40, 122, 123, 133, 139;
fetish nature of, 10, 107, 108, 109, 155;
and paper money, 10, 15, 16, 69, 165, 176;
politics of, 7, 214
ideology:
definition of, 232n13;
the discursive practice of modern capital, 4, 95, 98, 107, 108, 115, 140–141, 160, 174, 182, 209, 232n13;
as form of reification, 98, 108, 115, 140–141, 174, 204, 206, 232n13;
as mode of reproduction, 16, 94–116 passim, 140–141, 204;
of realism, 5, 115, 169, 173, 174, 196, 206, 232n13
Illich, Ivan, 6, 32
incense:
as connector of worlds, 36;
as mode of ritual sublimation, 83, 88, 89, 90;
as mode of signification, 90, 91, 92, 93;
as offering in ritual service, 78–93 passim;
principal signifier in ritual service, 86, 93, 107, 117
intelligentsia (modern intellects), 11, 62, 169, 213. See also literati; spirit masters
internet, 6, 13, 171–197 passim;
spinning urban folklore, 103–104, 188–189, 236n2
Islam, 15, 77
Jade Buddha temple, Shanghai, 133–134
Jade Emperor:
as bank president, 51, 107, 151, 154, 155, 156, 157;
depicted on ghost bills, 151–162 passim;
as highest divinity in indigenous pantheon, 31, 107;
juxtaposed to Buddha, 151, 154, 155, 156
Jameson, Fredric, 113, 180
Jia Sidao (1213–1275), 95
jocund mood, 5, 79, 86, 171, 184
Josephides, Lisette, 205
journalism in China, 171
Kaifusi Guanyin temple, Changsha, Hunan, 23, 41, 106
Kaiyuan (Buddhist temple), Quanzhou, Fujian, 35
Kang Jie (1011–1077), 68
King of Purgatory. See purgatory
Kipnis, Andrew, 139, 225n10
kitsch, 35. See also burlesque
kula, 198, 199, 201, 202, 203, 232n14
(p.270) labor:
divisions of, 26, 46–50 passim, 130, 220n13;
expended in domestic work(s), 99, 100, 101–102, 109–110, 111, 141, 143, 167, 205, 209;
expended in ritual work(s), 38, 86, 91–92, 105, 121, 123, 124–129 passim, 130, 134–135, 138, 141, 143, 167;
hand, 27, 32, 46–50 passim, 129, 173;
migrant, 47, 49;
reproductive, 126. See also folding paper objects; labor power
labor power:
explicit theories of value based on, 7, 99, 103, 107–108, 109, 110–111, 112, 114, 115, 140, 209, 229n5, 231n12;
extraction of peasant household, 97, 98, 99, 101–102, 103, 109, 111, 114, 210;
implicit Chinese theories of value based on, 110–111, 112, 113, 115, 129, 229n5;
mystification of, 71, 75, 100–101, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 126, 129, 139, 140, 141, 206, 208, 210;
primacy of agriculture in, 69, 70–71, 96, 99, 109, 110–111, 114, 115, 210;
regimes of recruitment and compensation, 48–49, 99–101, 109, 112, 113, 115, 220n16, 230nn6–7;
reification of, 107–108, 109, 111, 113, 115, 184–185, 206;
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 77, 79, 89, 90, 223n1, 227nn20–21
. See profit
Liao Gang (1070–1143), 70
lifeworld, 4–5, 10, 115, 126, 140, 151, 224n7;
as cash nexus, 95–96, 107, 228n1;
material base of, 97–107 passim, 232n13;
material spirit of, 125, 197, 210;
modern, 5, 72, 108, 109, 141, 168;
an open door on matters of imagination and religion, 97, 151;
the traditional, 12, 72, 73, 111, 114, 141;
of traditional Chinese compared to Gawan, 203
Liji. See Book of Rites
literati (old order intellects), 3, 11, 62–63, 95, 100, 202–203;
attitudes toward paper money of, 3, 11, 66–75 passim;
producers of historical narrative, 63, 73–74, 95, 202–203;
sumptuary privileges of, 74. See also intelligentsia; spirit masters
liturgical order:
of common ritual service, 76–93 passim;
as system of signs, 77. See also canonical order of paper money
Liu Shaoqi, 113, 158, 160
logos. See brands and logos
loyalty (zhōng), 100, 101. See also filial piety
ludic spirit, 3, 5, 54, 74, 128, 170, 179, 188
Lukács, György, 6, 98, 174, 229n3, 230n7, 232n13, 233n15
luxuries, paper simulated, 170, 178–179, 180–181, 183. See also exotic offerings
machined versus handmade, 31–32, 33, 44, 129, 143, 165, 171, 173–174
magic:
as basis for ritual and mystification, 109, 158;
and commonsense, 115;
in power of words, 224n7;
as power to mediate appearance and disappearance, 109;
and science, 35, 86, 143, 168;
sympathetic reasoning of, 143, 146–147, 162, 175, 176
mahjong, paper simulated, 179, 187, 189. See also exotic offerings
Malinowski, Bronislaw, 7, 35, 115, 198, 224n7
Mandate of Heaven, 99, 100, 101, 102, 229n4
Mann, Susan, 102, 113
manufacturing paper money. See workshops
Mao Zedong:
depicted on money, 158, 160, 161;
discursive style of, 194;
fate of paper money custom under, 196;
iconoclasm of, 10, 15, 42, 112;
sageness and apotheosis of, 16, 22–23, 216n9, 217n4;
still quoted, 185;
as vanishing mediator, 112–113
Marcus, George, 10
(p.271) marketing paper money. See paper money: as commodity
materialism, aesthetic, 6, 8, 141. See also historical materialism
Mauss, Marcel, 62, 106, 118, 199, 201, 204, 206, 207, 218n6, 224n4, 232n14, 233n3
Mazu, 39
McCreery, John L., 12, 16, 80, 81, 175, 225nn10–11
Měijīn (American money), 120, 159. See also dollars, facsimiles of
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 5, 6, 21, 82, 85, 87, 124, 125
methodologies and techniques:
in analyzing a corpus of ghost bills, 148–151 passim, 235n4;
of deconstruction, 7, 196;
and ethnographic refusal, 196;
of ethnography, 6, 9, 10, 196, 215n2;
of fieldwork, 17–23 passim, 106, 130–137 passim, 231n11, 234nn7–9;
in language use, 6, 156, 235n7;
quantitative surveys, 2, 19, 21, 55, 194–196, 197. See also historical materialism; phenomenology; structuralism
mode of production:
Asiatic, 99, 233n16;
based on exploitation of labor power, 98, 99, 209;
capitalist, 107, 108, 112–113, 209, 232n13;
and forms of exchange, 98, 208;
multiple modes, 98;
petit capitalist (PCMP), 97–98, 99, 105, 107;
and social formation, 98, 101, 111, 114, 206, 209;
moka, 205, 206
money, real:
common currencies of, 38–39, 40, 45;
distinguished from paper money, 20, 29, 60, 61, 68, 142, 171, 178, 225n9;
as general purpose signifier of value, 16, 40, 51, 157, 225n9, 225n11;
as gift, 69, 107, 225n11;
history of, 28, 66, 67;
limitations of, 20, 225n9, 225n11;
ritual use of, 2, 9, 34, 80, 81, 159, 175–178, 200;
synonymous with life, 96;
terms for paper money, 133, 154;
used to purchase paper money, 123–124, 129, 133, 148, 165, 174
money spirit (qiánshén). See spirit of wealth
mothering spirit (Niángniang), 12
Munn, Nancy D., 199, 201, 204, 209
mystification, 201–205 passim, 220n1, 232n14;
distinguished from reification, 109, 113, 115, 162, 174, 232n13;
function of ritualism, 111, 114, 138, 213, 214;
function of social formation, 111, 114, 115, 201, 210, 213, 214;
as mediation of visible/invisible, 109, 111;
and mode of production, 108, 109, 111, 112, 140;
and people’s ability to see through, 32–33, 74, 114–115, 158, 196, 213, 232n14;
as reflex of social experience, 97;
work of spirit master, 32–33;
work of the mindful body, 138, 141. See also ideology; reification; ritual
Narcissus Beauty Pageant, 184
Nash, June, 208
National Public Radio, 12
native place spirits, 45
natural attitude, 115. See also commonsense; lifeworld
Needham, Joseph, 82, 84
Noble Benefactor Charm (guìrén fú), 11, 26, 42, 122
Ortner, Sherry, 196
Otherworld Tobacco Company, 190
Pànguān (judge in purgatory), 56–57
paper (zhĭ), as chiasm of yīnyáng, 9, 21, 24
paper clothes (yīzhĭ):
as basic human need and taxonomic category, 13, 28, 50, 180;
and beautiful ladies, 186;
classical texts on, 68;
as Superman or Spiderman outfits, 188;
Tang dynasty reference to, (p.272) 66;
for the Yu County Winter Sacrifice, 64, 65, 80, 166–167
paper cuttings (jiănzhĭ), 16, 23, 24, 136
paper gods of New Year pictures (niánhuà), 16, 22, 23
paper money (zhĭqián):
as bindings (zhĭzhā), 16, 28, 165, 172, 178;
as bundles (bāofu), 120, 122, 126;
as commodity, 10, 73, 105, 106, 124, 137, 165, 192, 193;
compared to belts of wampum, 121;
compared to kula, 198, 199, 201, 202, 203;
compared to potlatch, 5, 114, 196, 199–200, 201;
as counterfeits, 65, 67, 145, 152, 159, 173, 182, 189;
décor and design of, 23, 41–45 passim, 50, 66, 147–165 passim, 190, 217n2, 219n11, 220n12;
decorative function of, 16, 23, 27, 35, 136;
and edicts to command spirits, 42, 106;
intertwining chrematistic and ceremonial aspects of, 28, 103, 114, 165;
as mock money, 13, 63, 72, 73, 74, 150, 160, 161;
as money tree, 154;
as night money (yèqián), 59, 60, 61, 62, 90;
not sacred, 165;
penultimate phase of the ritual service, 76–93 passim;
prepackaged kits of, 190;
replicas of cash, 13, 27–38 passim, 42, 50, 66, 70, 95, 97, 104, 120, 129, 137, 146, 147, 154, 167, 168, 217n2, 217n4, 222n11;
replicas of gold (jīn) (see under gold);
replicas of silver, 13, 14, 28, 37–39, 40, 41, 42, 47, 48, 50, 69, 104, 109, 130, 136, 166, 172–173, 219nn10–11;
semiosis of, 3, 82, 85, 92;
taxonomies of, 27, 28, 50;
as toy, 167, 168, 182;
as xībó (tinfoil), 38, 131–134 passim
paper money, epigraphs on, 26, 37–38, 42, 44–45, 49, 51, 94, 105, 145, 148–165 passim, 174, 211;
semiotics of, 45, 217n2
paper money, facsimiles of paper currencies:
face values on, 106, 107, 114, 121, 147–176 passim;
history of, 67, 145–147;
issuing banks for, 149, 152, 153–154, 157, 159, 163, 217n2;
pinyin inscribed on, 151, 156, 157;
spheres of circulation inscribed on, 51, 152, 153, 157. See also dollars, facsimiles of; ghost bills; Hell Bank Note; Renminbi (RMB)
paper money, folded forms of:
gold bars (jīntiáo), 132, 200;
holy hats or monks’ hats (sēngmào), 128, 130;
ingots (dìngzi), 51, 127, 131, 132, 135, 137, 172, 219n9;
paper money, types of paper used for:
burning paper (shāozhĭ), 36;
grass paper (căozhĭ), 29, 30, 31, 33, 36, 56, 57, 221n5;
money paper (qiánzhĭ), 18, 29, 33, 36, 39, 129, 143, 167, 176;
mulberry-bark (chǔqián), 68, 221n5;
white paper, 27, 33, 37, 41, 130, 136, 143, 166, 217n2;
yellow ceremonial paper (huángbiăozhĭ), 38, 41, 128
paradise (celestial sphere, heaven, sky;
tiāntáng):
brand of mahjong, checkers, and handgun, 187;
depicted on paper money, 25, 36, 42, 43, 44, 45, 149, 153, 154, 157, 163, 174, 220n12, 220n17;
as imagined other-world destination, 18, 19, 24, 104, 105, 141, 152, 153;
synonymous with cosmic firmament, 26, 95, 103, 167, 172, 218n7, 235n7;
synonymous with money, 103, 153, 111, 217n2. See also yáng-world
patronage:
spirit of, 11, 101, 102, 134, 200 (see also Noble Benefactor Charm);
of spirits, 22, 23, 34, 55, 80, 134, 200;
system of, 94, 97, 98, 100, 109, 113, 114, 134, 166, 230n7
Peng Xinwei, 66, 67, 230n6
Pfänder, Alexander, 119
phenomenology:
and historical materialism, 8, 140–141;
methods of, 3, 4, 5, 8, 106, 117–141 passim
piety of the flesh, 11, 17, 18, 85. See also chiasm; filial piety
Polanyi, Karl, 204, 228n1
pollution from burning paper money, 2, 210
postmodern, the, 14, 98, 169, 213
Potter, Sulamith Heins and Jack M., 139
(p.273) precapitalist formations, 4, 108, 109, 204, 209, 230. See also social economy
prestation ceremonies. See kula; moka
profit (), 62, 94, 96, 198–199
“psychophysical at home feeling,” 44
Public Field Law, 95
purgatory (dìyù):
bank note issued by Hell, 120, 146, 151–155 passim, 157, 159, 160, 163;
and circulation of money, 55–61 passim, 152, 153;
depicted on paper money, 107, 149, 156, 162, 163, 217n2;
as imagined other-world destination, 19, 20, 25, 35, 38, 57, 77, 152, 156, 183, 187;
King of, 59, 107, 149, 156, 162;
release and rescue from, 38, 45, 128, 130, 217, 224n5. See also yáng-world
Qianzhou City Temple and Guanyin (Buddhist) Temple, 30, 39, 216n1
Qingming festival:
in blogosphere, 171;
expenditures on, 2, 196;
in Honolulu, 79, 166, 184;
importance and popularity of, 20, 134, 193, 195, 196;
made an official holiday, 171;
Ms. Wang’s Gift Box for, 191–192, 195, 197;
references to, in historical and folk narratives, 60, 73;
unusual offerings reported in news-papers, 177, 179, 180–181, 189
Quanzhou Kaiyuan temple complex, 35
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R., 79
Radin, Paul, 90
Rappaport, Roy, 63, 77, 78, 79, 82, 85, 87, 118, 134
realism, 142–178 passim;
versus authenticity, 171–178 passim, 180, 213–214. See also authenticity; hyperreality; ideology
rebus, 35, 36, 42, 43, 162
red packets (hóngbāo), 225n11
regimes of value, 99, 110, 111, 112, 218, 230. See also Appadurai, Arjun
reification:
distinguished from mystification, 108, 109, 112, 204, 209, 232n14;
expressed in paper money custom, 113–114, 174–178 passim, 188, 225n9;
as historical process in capitalism, 96, 98, 109, 115, 140, 141, 162, 207, 214;
of Mao’s legacy, 22;
of paper money terms, 27;
of sexuality, 184, 206;
and the work of ideology, 108, 196, 206, 209, 232n13. See also ideology
relativism misplaced, 7, 196
religion:
Chinese, 24, 77, 95, 96, 105;
nature of belief in,18, 20, 66, 97, 105, 115, 168, 232n13;
in reference to paper money, 10, 13, 15, 23, 66, 69, 97. See also Christian; Tao
remorse (huĭhèn). See burning paper: to vent remorse
rén (human, humaneness), 5, 21, 75, 139, 198–199, 202, 210
rènao. See boisterous mood
Renminbi (RMB), 13, 36, 143, 150, 158–178 passim
resistance. See hegemony
Ricoeur, Paul, 111, 119
rite of redemption (chāodù). See purgatory: release and rescue from
ritual:
distinguished from ideology, 95, 98, 100, 101, 105, 108–110, 113, 115, 141, 173, 204, 232nn13–14;
as mode of reproduction, 109, 114, 141, 173, 205, 232n13;
mystification function of, 62, 100, 102, 104, 107, 109–110, 111, 114–115, 140, 171, 173, 199, 205, 213–214, 215n2, 224n7, 232n14;
obligatory nature of, 12, 106, 114, 115, 118, 120, 134, 138, 139, 197, 199, 201, 210;
process of, 78, 79, 82, 84, 85, 86, 117–118, 224n4, 227n16;
rational explanations of, 39, 79, 80, 106, 215n2, 224n6, 225n9;
as self-reproducing, 92, 115, 118, 126, 134, 138, 210. See also common ritual service
Rivers, W. H. R., 215n2
Robbins, Richard H., 7, 109
ruined money (pòqián), 48
Rúlái (Buddha’s blessings), 31, 216n1
Saad-Filho, Alfredo, 7
sacrifice:
blood, 120, 121, 138, 139, 140;
Chinese concepts of, 64–65, 72, 77, 80, (p.274) 100, 106, 120–124 passim, 141, 233n1, 233n3;
defining attributes of, 3–4, 5, 53, 73, 117, 118–120, 207, 234n11;
of human effigies, 64, 179, 181, 185, 186, 195;
of labor power, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 140, 141, 209–210;
of paper, 3–4, 5, 72, 117, 125, 138, 139, 140, 141, 209–210;
as sacred violence, 235n13;
of self, 3–4, 138, 140, 141, 198–199;
and social order, 3, 4, 100, 139, 140, 141, 198–199, 209–210;
of the Eucharist, 139;
“unrestrained,” 72, 170, 183;
Yu County Winter, 64–65, 166–168. See also consecration
safe and sound feeling, desire for, 38, 45, 49, 187
Sahlins, Marshall, 7
Saint-Exupéry, Antoine de, 117, 118, 119
Sangren, P. Steven, ix, 7, 40, 51, 118, 134
Sapir, Edward, 75
Schipper, Kristofer, 34, 224nn4–5, 226n12
Schneider, Jane, 208
scholar-officials. See literati
Schurmann, Franz, 196, 230n7
science, 5, 35, 86, 115, 182, 206, 209;
and alchemy, 86;
of economics, 5, 115, 209, 232n13;
and ideology, 5, 182, 206, 232n13;
and magic, 35, 86
scoffers, skeptics, and squibsters, 10, 39, 59, 62, 146, 170, 179, 180, 183, 196–197
Scott, Janet, 3, 6, 16, 38, 178, 219n9
Seaman, Gary, 16, 39
Seidel, Anna, 94
separation and union, 21, 40, 78, 81, 93, 104–105, 207, 225n10, 227n19
sex:
and death, 184;
and G-spot device (G-diăn tào), 182, 206, 236n2;
paper replicas of supplies for (xìng yòngpĭn), 179, 180–186, 188–189, 206, 236n2;
and show truck business, 183–184;
toys and aids, paper simulated, 179, 181–183, 184–185, 194. See also exotic offerings; gender differences, structuring
Sexton, Lorraine, 205
Shahar, Meir, 5
Shakyamuni. See Buddha
Shipton, Parker, 208
shoes:
for bound feet, 127, 141;
replicas of, 16, 64, 137, 219n9;
ritual use of, 12, 18, 137, 191, 216n6
show truck business. See sex
sign value. See value, types of
Sima Guang (1019–1086), 68
Simmel, Georg, 109, 206–207
Simon, Herbert, 87
Skinner, G. William, 114
Smith, Arthur H., 185, 199
smoke. See incense
social economy, 201–207;
and authenticity, 214;
China’s, 102–103, 204;
as community of goods,102, 204;
distinguished from commodity economy, 204, 205–206;
encounters with capitalist formations, 208–209;
as lifeworld, 4;
precapitalist formations, 4, 204;
and representations of gender, 205–206;
in ritual commerce with spirits, 114. See also animus
social formation:
of archaic and feudal sumptuary distinctions, 40, 51;
in capitalist periphery, 208;
of China, 99, 111;
and holistic analysis, 209;
of material culture, 10;
and mode of production, 111;
of modern capital, 204, 205;
of social economies, 201, 204, 205;
in structuring gender, 203–204, 206. See also mode of production
socialism, 112, 113
Soothill, Lucy, 11, 226n13
soul:
personal aspects of, 34, 104, 226n14;
phases of, 28, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 45, 50–51, 64, 77, 80, 104;
as sentient being, 64, 75, 86, 91, 92, 104
space:
sacred and sense of being, 77–90 passim;
the sense of inner and outer, 141. See also emptiness of folders and the folded
Spiegelberg, Herbert, 4, 106
(p.275) spirit favors (spirit money), 62, 200
spirit masters, 11, 26, 28, 30, 62, 69, 104, 105, 177, 222n11;
Taoist, 31–33 passim, 62, 81, 224n5, 224n7
spirit of largesse, 4, 5, 16, 103, 106, 121, 161
spirit of wealth (cáishén), 42, 95;
Gold Master (jīnzhŭ), 95;
marshal of wealth, Zhao Gongming, 42;
Money Spirit (qiánshén), 95;
spirit of Emolument, 42, 43, 50, 94;
Star of Emolument, 95
spiritual being, personal aspects of, 22–23, 28, 34–35, 37, 38, 45, 104
spiritual value. See value, types of
Spiro, Melford E., 7
Stafford, Charles, 40, 84, 127, 199
stellar spirits, 41, 42, 45
Stoller, Paul, 91
Strathern, Andrew, 205, 206
Strathern, Marilyn, 204, 205
striptease. See sex
structuralism, 3, 77–93 passim, 223n1
subject-object:
in form of sacrifice, 141;
unity of, in form of treasure vessel, 138. See also dialectics; yīnyáng
sublate, 114, 140, 198, 214
sublimation of ritual materials, 62, 83, 86, 88, 93. See also fire
suicide, 58, 104
sumptuary distinctions:
in ancient and feudal social formations, 40, 51, 67–68, 72, 96, 99, 100, 102, 103, 110;
enabling the appearance of nobility, 100, 102;
as factor in the popularization of paper money, 72–73, 74;
mocked by paper money custom, 63, 72–73;
signified in paper money offerings, 29, 40, 42, 51, 219n11
superstition, 10, 11, 76, 190–193 passim, 215n1
“superstitious-paper-making machines” (míxìn zhĭqián jī), 173
surplus value. See labor
Su Shi (1037–1101), 73, 85
“Sutra for Blessing Paper Notes” (chāopiào jīng), 164, 235n7
Tan Chee-Beng, 34
Tang-Song commercial revolution, 66, 73, 100
Tao (cosmic tide), 226n12. See also yīnyáng
Taussig, Michael T., 208
temples:
erotic displays at, 183;
imperial, 95, 218n7;
places for blessing paper money, 133–134;
places for folding paper, 129–130, 134. See also Buddha
Thompson, E. P., 10
time:
firecrackers as signifier of mundane, 88–89;
the order of ritual service and, 78–90 passim. See also mode of production; space
tombs. See burial ground
Tu (ethnic minority), 14
Turnbull, Colin, 203
Turner, Terence S., 82, 84, 98, 204, 207, 209
Turner, Victor W., 79, 82, 83, 84, 227n15
Tu Weiming, 15
Tylor, Edward, 76, 77
unrestrained sacrifice (yín sì). See sacrifice
use value. See value, types of
utilitarian explanations, 79, 123. See also ritual: rational explanations of
value, types of:
labor, 7, 107, 109, 140, 210, 235n12;
sensual, 79, 108, 124, 137, 138, 141, 184–185;
sign, 14, 119;
spiritual, 36, 93, 106, 119, 124, 125, 137, 210;
surplus, 107–108, 113, 126, 205, 229n5;
use, 7, 107, 108, 110, 119, 124, 229n5, 231n12. See also exchange value
vanishing mediator, 113
Veblen, Torstein, 168
vessels:
of goods offered to deceased, 53, 54, 60, 64;
made by folding, 125, 127, 131, 137, 138, 139, 141;
mindful body as, 125, 126, 134–135, 137, 138, 141;
shaped as First Treasure, 137, 219n9
Wallace, Anthony F. C., 60
Wallace, Mike:
style of journalism, 192
(p.276) Wang Li, 12, 65
Wang Lian, 31
Wank, David L., 113
waste paper, seen as origin of custom, 58. See also labor power: waste of paper and
Watson, James, 103, 127, 230n6
weapons, paper simulated, 186–188. See also exotic offerings
Weber, Max, 111, 168, 214, 229n3, 233n15
Weiner, Annette B., 204
Weller, Robert P., 5
Wenshuyuan (Buddhist temple), Chengdu, Sichuan, 41, 130
Wilk, Richard R., 204
Wissler, Clark, 44
Wolf, Arthur P., 51
women, paper effigies of, 177, 184, 185. See also exotic offerings; sacrifice: of human effigies
Wong Tai Sin temple, Hong Kong, 26, 106–107, 121, 134–135
workshops, 27, 29–30, 46–50, 55, 70, 112
“world of cheerful work,” 125, 138
writing brush, 100, 101, 191, 203. See also convivial tools
Wu Chengming, 99, 103
Xu Dixin, 99, 103
Yama (Yánwáng, Yánluó). See purgatory: King of
yáng-world:
communication with yīn-world, 35, 85, 87, 90;
distinguished from yīn-world, 19, 20, 21, 56–57, 59, 60. See also dreams: entrusted
Yan Yunxiang, 96
yīn-world. See yáng-world
yīnyáng:
of Chinese historical formation, 99, 101, 111–112;
compared to the European dialectic, 103, 115, 125, 233n16;
of cosmic renewal, 9, 36, 101, 202;
the five phases of, 82, 83, 84, 125, 226n12;
of opposing moods, 5, 79, 82, 158;
of spiritual essences, 226n14;
as ultimate sacred postulate, 84. See also dialectics
yīnyángwǔxíng. See yīnyáng: the five phases of
yuánbăo. See First Treasure
Zhu Xi (1130–1200), 68, 69
Zito, Angela, 100, 101, 121, 202–203, 233n1, 233n3