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Waves of ResistanceSurfing and History in Twentieth-Century Hawaii$
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Isaiah Helekunihi Walker

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780824834623

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824834623.001.0001

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Colonial Violence and Hawaiian Resistance

Colonial Violence and Hawaiian Resistance

(p.42) Chapter 2 Colonial Violence and Hawaiian Resistance
Waves of Resistance

Isaiah Helekunihi Walker

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter contextualizes twentieth-century Hawaiian resistance in the surf by chronicling a history of colonial violence in nineteenth-century Hawaii. Over the last few years, the written history of this period has matured as more scholars have represented Hawaiians as agents in their own history. While such agency has uncovered stories of resistance and in some cases empowerment, the systematic oppression of Hawaiians in this story cannot be disregarded. Colonial violence and resistance are key themes in nineteenth-century Hawaiian history, and the relationship between the two is still tangible today. Although their identity has evolved, Hawaiian surfers have expressed an inherited version of nineteenth-century colonial resistance in the waves. This genealogy of resistance has survived because of the unique nature of ka po'ina nalu (the surf zone). Reviewing this history from which many Hawaiian surfers have molded their concepts of resistance provides a clearer picture of both haole and Hawaiian motives, violence, and protests.

Keywords:   Hawaii, colonial violence, Hawaiian resistance, surf, surfing, surf zone, haole

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