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Refiguring Women, Colonialism, and Modernity in Burma$
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Chie Ikeya

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780824834616

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824834616.001.0001

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(p.163) Conclusion
Refiguring Women, Colonialism, and Modernity in Burma

Chie Ikeya

University of Hawai'i Press

This concluding chapter reviews that the book has examined the complexities of colonialism and modernity in Burma by focusing on the women of the khit kala. It has considered how the modern woman, including the housewife-and-mother and the fashionable khit hsan thu, exemplified the ways that rising consumerism had transformed what was expected of women in their role of wife and mother. It has also discussed the increasing mobilization of women by nationalist and feminist movements that encouraged and obligated women to contribute to organized politics. In conclusion, the book analyzes Journal Gyaw Ma Ma Lay's two literary works on colonialism in Burma, Mon ywe mahu (Not out of hate) and Thway (Blood), to highlight the heterogeneous and uneven ways that Burmese men and women experienced and engaged with colonialism and modernity.

Keywords:   colonialism, Burma, modern woman, khit kala, khit hsan thu, consumerism, Burmese men, Journal Gyaw Ma Ma Lay, modernity, Burmese women

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