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The Seven Tengu Scrolls
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The Seven Tengu Scrolls: Evil and the Rhetoric of Legitimacy in Medieval Japanese Buddhism

Haruko Wakabayashi


This book is a study of visual and textual images of the mythical creature tengu from the late Heian (897–1185) to the late Kamakura (1185–1333) periods. Popularly depicted as half-bird, half-human creatures with beaks or long noses, wings, and human bodies, tengu today are commonly seen as guardian spirits associated with the mountain ascetics known as yamabushi. In the medieval period, however, the character of tengu most often had a darker, more malevolent aspect. The book focuses on tengu as manifestations of the Buddhist concept of Mara (or ma), the personification of evil in the form of ... More

Keywords: tengu, guardian spirits, yamabushi, Mara, evil, medieval Japan, Buddhism, Buddhist monks, Tengu zoshi

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2012 Print ISBN-13: 9780824834166
Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016 DOI:10.21313/hawaii/9780824834166.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Haruko Wakabayashi, author
Princeton University