Embodiment of Local Belonging
This concluding chapter draws together the data on Okinawan-Bolivians' contradictory subject positions in Bolivia and Japan in order to theorize the meaning of racialization in a transnational context. The various subject-makings of Okinawan-Bolivians—as “Japanese” farm owners in Colonia Okinawa and as “South American” manual laborers in Yokohama, as “good Bolivians of Japanese descent” in educational institutions in Bolivia, and as part of an “Okinawan” diasporic brotherhood and sisterhood across the globe—exemplify a social process of citizenship, conferring individuals with different degrees and modes of belonging in the respective locales. This study reiterates that, in studying and theorizing race, class, and culture in the globally interconnected world today, anthropological techniques can be used to discern the ways in which political, economic, and social institutions and everyday practices of individuals shape and reshape the meanings and expressions of these concepts.
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