This chapter summarizes key themes and presents some final thoughts. It argues that the realization of shamanship is a difficult and by no means certain process. And as in other societies with active shaman traditions, the question of “true” versus “phony” shamans abides. Many shamans perform without sufficient training; contemporary lifestyles and the spatial isolation of shamanic performances abet shoddy work; and many who style themselves as mudang function primarily if not exclusively as diviners. These shaman diviners are part of the changing popular religious landscape, in some ways particularly well adapted to it. Some even provide their clients with a therapeutic lift such as one might find in many talking cures, from Freudians to tea-leaf readers. The chapter concludes that popular religion is dynamic religion, that those whom we think of as shamans are particularly adept at engaging new material.
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