This epilogue examines how World War II served as a proving ground for Japanese Americans in Hawaiʻi, as reflected in patriotic advertisements in the ethnic press. It assesses the impact of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and subsequent U.S. entry into World War II on the duality that had sustained Issei business through the hard days of the Depression. It considers how wartime pressures paradoxically underscored the strength of the Japanese immigrant community as the ethnic press became first victim, then instrument of military policy. It shows how Japanese Americans tested their full citizenship not only in the military, but also in the marketplace, and how they were affected by the statehood debate. It also explores the link between prewar and postwar notions of beauty as they relate to the social construction of “whiteness.”
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