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Imperial-Way ZenIchikawa Hakugen's Critique and Lingering Questions for Buddhist Ethics$
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Christopher Ives

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780824833312

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824833312.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM HAWAII SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hawaii.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hawaii University Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HSO for personal use.date: 15 October 2019

Useful Buddhism, 1868–1945

Useful Buddhism, 1868–1945

Chapter:
(p.13) Chapter One Useful Buddhism, 1868–1945
Source:
Imperial-Way Zen
Author(s):

Christopher Ives

Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:10.21313/hawaii/9780824833312.003.0002

This chapter provides an overview of the actions and ideology that characterized Imperial-Way Buddhism from the Meiji Restoration up to 1945. During these years, Japanese religious history is divided into five periods. The first (1868–1872) featured the advocacy of the “unity of rites and rule” (saisei itchi) and the separation of Shinto and Buddhism. In the second period (1872–1877), the Ministry of Religion and the Great Teaching Promulgation Campaign attempted to consolidate Shinto and Buddhism. During the third period (1877–1912), government officials cemented the power of the imperial system and State Shinto. The fourth period (1912–1935) saw how the state pressured authorized religions to foster “Japanese spirit,” cultivate Imperial-Way Buddhism, and pacify colonized areas. Finally, the fifth period (1937–1945) centered on the system established by the Religious Organizations Law and the full mobilization of religions.

Keywords:   Imperial-Way Buddhism, Japanese religious history, saisei itchi, Shinto, Buddhism, State Shinto, Japanese spirit, Religious Organizations Law

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