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Imperial-Way Zen – Ichikawa Hakugen's Critique and Lingering Questions for Buddhist Ethics - Hawaii Scholarship Online
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Imperial-Way Zen: Ichikawa Hakugen's Critique and Lingering Questions for Buddhist Ethics

Christopher Ives


During the first half of the twentieth century, Zen Buddhist leaders contributed actively to Japanese imperialism, giving rise to what has been termed “Imperial-Way Zen” (Kodo Zen). Its foremost critic was priest, professor, and activist Ichikawa Hakugen (1902–1986). Ichikawa focused his critique on the Zen approach to religious liberation, the political ramifications of Buddhist metaphysical constructs, the traditional collaboration between Buddhism and governments in East Asia, the philosophical system of Nishida Kitaro (1876–1945), and the vestiges of State Shinto in postwar Japan. Despite ... More

Keywords: Zen Buddhism, Japanese imperialism, Ichikawa Hakugen, religious liberation, Buddhist ethics, Buddhist nationalism, postwar Japan, Zen social ethic

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2009 Print ISBN-13: 9780824833312
Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016 DOI:10.21313/hawaii/9780824833312.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Christopher Ives, author
Stonehill College