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The Diplomacy of Nationalism – The Six Companies and China’s Policy toward Exclusion - Hawaii Scholarship Online
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The Diplomacy of Nationalism: The Six Companies and China’s Policy toward Exclusion

Yucheng Qin


This is a striking, original portrait of the Chinese Six Companies (Zhonghua huiguan), or Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, the most prominent support organization for Chinese immigrants in the United States in the late nineteenth century. As a federation of “native-place associations” (huiguan) in California, the Six Companies responded to racist acts and legislation by organizing immigrant communities and employing effective diplomatic strategies against exclusion. The book substantiates recent arguments that Chinese immigrants were resourceful in fighting for their rights and arg ... More

Keywords: diplomatic activism, Chinese Six Companies, Chinese immigrants, Chinese nationalism, transnational experience, Chinese history, Chinese Americans, Sino-American relations, huiguan

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2009 Print ISBN-13: 9780824832742
Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016 DOI:10.21313/hawaii/9780824832742.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Yucheng Qin, author
University of Hawai’i at Hilo