This concluding chapter summarizes the book’s main points regarding the diplomacy of the Chinese Six Companies and its impact on important developments in nineteenth-century Chinese-American history, modern Chinese history, and the early history of Sino-American relations. Modern Chinese nationalism first emerged in California from the huiguan or native-place associations, and the Six Companies’ modern nationalist diplomacy steered China’s turn toward modern nationalist foreign relations. By showing that the Six Companies, rather than the Chinese government, was the center of modern Chinese diplomacy during its crucial beginnings, the book reconfigures the intellectual landscape of the culturalism-to-nationalism thesis and of China’s entrance into the modern family of nations.
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