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The Diplomacy of NationalismThe Six Companies and China’s Policy toward Exclusion$
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Yucheng Qin

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780824832742

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824832742.001.0001

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“Superseding the Six Companies”

“Superseding the Six Companies”

The Qing Legation, 1878–1890

(p.98) Chapter 6 “Superseding the Six Companies”
The Diplomacy of Nationalism

Yucheng Qin

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter examines the Chinese Six Companies’ cooperation with the nascent Qing legation as the latter pursued its objectives in the United States during the period 1878–1890. In order to understand how the Qing government “superseded” the authority and influence of the Six Companies in the United States, it considers the challenges faced by the Chinese during this period, with particular emphasis on Chinese merchants who were victims of the anti-Chinese movement and the crusade against Chinese immigration. It then discusses the Qing legation’s enlistment of the Six Companies to deal with the attacks against Chinese immigrants, along with its role as Chinatown reformer and its campaign for Chinese legal equality. It also looks at the Chinese legation’s lobbying efforts and its policy regarding restrictions on Chinese immigration and concludes by focusing on its calls for protection and indemnity for Chinese who were victims of mob attacks.

Keywords:   lobbying, Chinese Six Companies, Qing legation, reform, Chinese merchants, anti-Chinese movement, Chinese immigration, Chinese immigrants, Chinatown, Qing government

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