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The Diplomacy of NationalismThe Six Companies and China’s Policy toward Exclusion$
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Yucheng Qin

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780824832742

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824832742.001.0001

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Setting the Tone and Format

Setting the Tone and Format

The Six Companies as Spokesman, 1870–1878

(p.78) Chapter 5 Setting the Tone and Format
The Diplomacy of Nationalism

Yucheng Qin

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter examines the role of the Chinese Six Companies as spokesman for all the Chinese in the United States during the period 1870–1878. As a federation of huiguan, the Six Companies had an obligation, among other services, to defend its members. This chapter considers how the Six Companies responded the unprecedented anti-Chinese challenges of the 1870s, first by discussing its efforts to restrict Chinese immigration from 1876 to 1878. It then explores the Six Companies role as reformer of San Francisco’s Chinatown in the 1870s, as defender of Chinese rights, and its campaign demanding indemnity for the Chinese who were repeatedly subjected to acts of violence, especially in the 1870s and 1880s. It also looks at Six Companies’ advocacy of legal equality, its lobbying efforts, and its call for the establishment of a Qing legation in the United States.

Keywords:   lobbying, Chinese Six Companies, indemnity, huiguan, Chinese immigration, Chinatown, Chinese rights, reform, legal equality, Qing legation

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