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The Diplomacy of NationalismThe Six Companies and China’s Policy toward Exclusion$
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Yucheng Qin

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780824832742

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824832742.001.0001

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Toward a New Chinese Self-image

Toward a New Chinese Self-image

The Beginning of Modern Chinese Nationalism in California, 1860s

(p.38) Chapter 3 Toward a New Chinese Self-image
The Diplomacy of Nationalism

Yucheng Qin

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter examines the emergence of modern Chinese nationalism in California during the 1860s. It begins with a discussion of Chinese immigration in the 1860s and the factors that influenced Chinese settlement patterns in California, along with the violence against Chinese immigrants. It then considers the appointment of Anson Burlingame as Chinese minister to the United States in 1868 and its significance for Sino-American relations. It also looks at the birth of a national huiguan in California, when the Zhonghua Gongshuo (Chung Wah Kung Saw; meaning the Chinese national public place association) was founded and became the Chinese Six Companies after recruiting the Hehe (Hop Wo) huiguan. The chapter concludes by focusing on the diplomatic activism of the Six Companies and its impact on China’s official approach to foreign relations.

Keywords:   huiguan, Chinese nationalism, California, Chinese immigration, Chinese immigrants, Anson Burlingame, Sino-American relations, Chinese Six Companies, diplomatic activism, foreign relations

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