Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Divided by a Common LanguageFactional Conflict in Late Northern Song China$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Ari Daniel Levine

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780824832667

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824832667.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM HAWAII SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hawaii.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hawaii University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HSO for personal use.date: 20 September 2021

Retributive Justice

Retributive Justice

Factional Rhetoric in the Post-Reform Era, 1094–1104

Chapter:
(p.126) Chapter Six Retributive Justice
Source:
Divided by a Common Language
Author(s):

Ari Daniel Levine

Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:10.21313/hawaii/9780824832667.003.0006

This chapter analyzes when reformists fought their way back from exile to dominate the post-reform phase. When Xuanren died in 1093, Zhezong inaugurated his personal rule and committed himself to an ideological program of “restoration” (shaoshu), rehabilitating the reformists and reviving the New Policies. Seeking revenge for Cai Que's death, Zhang Dun formed a vertical alliance with the emperor and persuaded him to systematically purge the antireformists from court. The surviving antireformists were later blacklisted, and their leaders were indicted on trumped-up charges of treason and factionalism in the Korean Relations Institute (Tongwen guan) inquisition; they were ultimately deported to Lingnan. When Zhezong died without an heir in 1100, Shenzong's consort Empress Dowager Qinsheng (1045–1101) assumed the regency for his younger brother Emperor Huizong and began to rehabilitate a new generation of antireformists. When Qinsheng died in 1101, Huizong began his personal rule, resolving to revive and expand reformist governance under the influence of his councilor, Cai Jing. Prosecuting the most brutal and comprehensive political purge in the history of the dynasty, Huizong promulgated three separate factional blacklists (dangji) between 1102 and 1104, banning more than 300 antireformists and their descendants from officeholding as a “faction.” In these proscriptions, which represented the endgame of the factional conflict, most of the antireform opposition were exiled en masse to fringe prefectures, where they were subject to movement restrictions, and an unknown number died. The silencing of political and ideological dissent enabled the Cai Jing ministry to revive and extend the New Policies and to build a patronage machine that monopolized power for twenty-five years, with minimal interruptions, almost until the fall of the Northern Song.

Keywords:   antireformists, factionalism, faction rhetoric, Northern Song, Zhezong, Zhang Dun, Qinsheng, Emperor Huizong, Cai Jing

Hawaii Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.