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Sailors and TradersA Maritime History of the Pacific Peoples$

Alastair Couper

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780824832391

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824832391.001.0001

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Index

Index

Source:
Sailors and Traders
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
abandonment of sailors:
by Captain Fodger, 127;
case of Ruatara, 127–128;
the law, 127;
occurrences, 76, 114, 126, 193;
Stevenson’s account, 129
abuses:
floggings, 86, 101, 126;
forced to desert, 125–126;
illegal hanging, 122, 131;
reprisal concerns of governments, 133;
theft of identities, 125;
wage discrimination, 125–126
accidents at sea:
categories, 118;
induced to take risks, 120;
modern hazards, 195;
in whaling, 120–121
alcohol, 112, 194–196
allotments to dependents from sailors, 201
Anson, George, 38
Anuta (Polynesian outlier), sailors social behavior, 18
Aotearoa (New Zealand):
exploration by Kupe, 8–9;
Polynesian arrivals, 9, 23;
return voyages and climate, 32;
settlement names, 44;
traditional vessels, 30;
vessels of Europeans, 59;
violence and armaments trade, 90–93. See also Maori
arms race:
attacks on ships for guns, 71, 96;
guns by trade, 78, 80, 83, 96
art at sea, 112
astronomy (indigenous):
Carolines, 34;
Kiribati, 9;
Tahiti, 9
Austral Islands, source of sandalwood, 81–82
Australian Maritime College (AMC), 177, 179
Australian Waterside Workers’ Federation, 200
Baintabu (navigator), 37
bakola (human flesh), 48
Banks, Joseph, 67, 68
beachcombers:
as commercial agents, 91;
as crimps, 105;
as mercenaries, 78;
their origins, 76;
as traders 139
bêche de mer trade, 122
Binoka, Tem, 96, 157
birds:
arrivals and island sustenance, 43;
indicators of fish, 39;
of land, 36;
shipbuilding timber, 28;
totemic species, 13
blackbirders:
Pacific crewing, 107–108;
people stealing ships, 107
Bligh, William, 38, 39, 62
Boki (Governor), 88, 89
Bougainville, Louis de, 60, 61, 66
bubuti (Kiribati), obligations to share, 7
Bullen, Frank, 105, 111
Buyers, John, 80
(p.254) Cakobau (King), 46, 47, 96
Cameron, Alister D., 154
Campbell, Telford, 146, 155
Campbell, William, 125
cannibalism at sea, 39;
attitudes of Europeans, 67–68;
on bakola raids, 48;
on lifeboats, 39;
in sealing, 121
canoes (oceanic):
baurua, 30;
drua, 28;
kalia, 28;
lakatoi, 30;
pahi, 29;
puka, 30;
wa (generic name), 25;
wa kaulua, 29;
waka tana, 30;
waka taua, 30
Cape Horn, 102, 116
capitalism into Pacific:
different ethics, 97;
environmental and social impacts, 98
captains:
of foreign ships, 125, 129;
functions, 33–34;
of indigenous craft, 9, 44;
as part owners, 77
Caroline Islands (Micronesia), navigators’ skills and status, 34, 44
Carteret, Philip, 60, 61, 66
castaways:
driven away in conflicts, 48;
expelled from ships, 38;
by famine, 47;
reception on islands, 47, 48
ceremonies at sea:
bonding of crew, 18;
ducking chair, 18;
King Neptune, 18, 112–113;
old horse, 18
Chatfield, N., 144
China trade:
Outer Eastern Passage from Australia, 76;
tea cargoes, 76;
cross Pacific from northwest America and Hawai‘i calls, 85;
voyages of New Hazard in fur trade, 85–88
Chinese traders, in islands, 144, 166, 205
climate change:
deterioration of climate curtailing voyaging, 32;
environmental impacts, 57;
favorable sailing periods, 32
coal, 141, 150–151
coastal hazards:
lee shores, 41;
reefs, 41–42
coconut oil trade, 76, 82
Collingwood, Cuthbert, 130
colonial shipping:
curtailment of traditional trading, 146;
reduced employment of island sailors, 146;
trade unions against cheap labor, 148–149;
White Australia Policy, 149
colonization:
annexation by imperial powers, 140–141;
early steamships, 141;
flag preferences, 143;
ports of entry and subsidies, 143;
redistributing German territories, 150;
small and remote islands suffer, 144
company shipping:
establishing spheres of trade, 138–140;
national lines cover Pacific, 141;
technical improvements, 141–143
Comstock, Samuel, 132
conflicts:
attacks by island people, 71, 91, 96, 121, 122;
attacks on Pacific people, 60–61, 83, 91–93;
wars between islands, 37, 45–48, 71, 81, 90, 96
convicts:
employed as sailors, 103–104, 224n20;
escape to islands, 76;
stealing ships, 104;
women convicts and crews, 102
Cook, James:
attitudes to social complexities, 72;
to deserters, 65–66;
and the Maori, 59;
to Pacific navigators, 37, 73;
to taking possession of territories, 63–64;
on trading values, 54;
to venereal disease, 66, 74;
voyages of, 62–63;
on wars, 45–50;
on women’s conditions, 69
Cook Islands (eastern Polynesia) own ships, 157–158, 181
(p.255) cooperatives and protocooperatives, 153–154
Copping, Edward, 121
crews (historic):
bonding, 18;
multiethnic, 117;
multinational, 107;
officer appointments, 109. See also seafarers recruitment (historical)
Crowther, Dr. W. L., 123
currents (ocean), 12, 30;
becalmed, 34;
drifting, 39;
hazardous, 146
Davis, Isaac, 84
death at sea (historical):
ancient voyages, 12;
British figures, 12, 118, 210n17;
Hawaiian, 119;
Nantucket, 12;
opinion of medical officer, 118–119;
sailors souls to Davy Jones’ locker or Fiddler’s Green, 13;
underreporting of deaths, 119
deaths (contemporary):
autopsy examples, 196;
common causes, 195;
delays in medical attention at sea, 195;
suicide, 196–197
desertion:
attraction of islands, 102;
driven to desert, 76, 126;
from time of Cook, 65–66, 76, 79, 91, 102, 105
destroying canoes as punishment, 15, 64
Dillon, Peter, 107
diseases:
exposure in ports, 123;
in foc’sles, 110;
nutritional defects, 123;
sexual infections, 123–124, 195;
tuberculosis, 123
diving:
for cable and hull repairs, 106;
deep for pearls, 106, 130;
mutiny by pearl divers, 130;
protests at exploitation of lagoons, 152;
skills of Pacific sailors, 106
DNA, dating in archaeology, 24
droughts, 6, 47
Dunlop, Carol, 180
dynasties:
founding in Hawai‘i, Kamehameha, 83;
Tahiti, Pomare, 78;
Tonga, chiefs Ha‘apai, Tongatapu, Vava‘u, 46;
victorious Tupou dynasty, 46
East India Company, 76
Easter Island. See Rapa Nui
El Niño:
droughts and migrations, 9;
generation of westerly winds, 23
engine rooms, change in ship social structure, 147
English language, advantages in global seafaring, 189, 206
explorers (Western):
American, 50;
British, 62;
Dutch, 61;
French, 61, 62;
Portuguese, 61;
Spanish, 60–61
fei (Yapese stone money), 51
Fiji (Melanesia/Polynesia):
arrival, 23;
Bua sea power, 46–47;
cargoes, 49, 53;
cession to Britain, 140;
foreign companies and subsidies, 166, 168;
inter-island fleet (contemporary), 166–167;
Kandavulevu lost, 174, 175;
passengers and cargo, 167–168;
safety regulations, 174–176;
seafarers’ profiles, 177–179;
ship losses, 168–169;
social changes, 178–180;
solevu, 171–175;
technical changes in shipping and ports, 175;
tourist craft, 175;
trade unions, 170, 180;
trading, informal by passengers and sailors, 170–171;
training, 176–177
Finney, Ben, 30, 207
first fleet, convict arrivals, 76
first migrant arrivals, primacy accorded, 44
flag of convenience, 186–187, 193, 200, 235n3
(p.256) Fodger, Michael, 81, 127, 130
food at sea:
on migratory voyages, 40–41;
in modern interisland vessels, 170;
on sailing ships, 123;
serving modern mixed crews, 7, 194
food from the sea:
Anson, Bligh, and Magellan, 38–39;
indigenous techniques successful, 39–40
Forster, George, 68, 69, 74
Forster, Johann Reinhold, 68
French Polynesia:
shortage of ships’ officers, 192;
trade unions, 199
geographical knowledge (indigenous):
evidence of early trading networks, 49;
Micronesia map conveyed to Cantova, 36;
Tupaia’s map of Polynesia, 1, 36
Gilbert, Thomas, 76
Gilbert and Ellice International Overseas Seamen’s Union, 200
Glen, John, 91
gods and sea spirits:
Batiauea, Bare-toka (Kiribati), 7;
Dakuwaga, Degei, Rokola (Fiji), 14, 16;
Maui, Tangaroa, Oro (Polynesia), 7, 8, 54;
Motikitiki (Solomons), 8;
ship as god, 11
golden rivet, 11
Gordon, Sir Arthur (Governor, Fiji), 145, 146;
policies, 145
Grimble, Arthur, 9, 34
Guam (Marianas):
arrival of Magellan, 38;
galleon staging post, 61
Hamburg Süd line, 188–189
Hanson, Thomas, 81
Hart, Charles, 122
Hawai‘i (Polynesia):
Cook on Resolution, 66;
first arrival Polynesians, 23;
fur traders, 83;
Kamehameha dynasty established, 83;
killings by Metcalf, 83–84;
obtained Fair American, 84;
royal commercial fleet initiated, 84;
sailors from Hawai‘i, 86;
sea power and conquests, 83;
ship purchases with sandalwood, 84;
shipbuilding, 84;
shipping regulations from America, 146;
trade to China, 87;
trade to northwest Pacific, 77;
unprofitable businesses, 88;
voyage disaster, Erromango sandalwood, 88–89
Hawaiki (Polynesia), legendary home-land of Maori, 9, 30
Henry, Samuel, 81
Heyen, G. H., 34, 138
Hicks, Zachary, 67
Hipour (navigator), 207
HIV/AIDS in Pacific, 21, 197–199
Hokule‘a, 30, 207
homosexual:
death sentence, 19;
Largs Bay marriage, 19;
Polynesian attitudes, 114, 212n41
hotel and cruise ships, 175
Indo Fijian traders, 166
Indonesia:
ships as symbolic family, 10;
swell in navigation, 13
International Labour Organization (ILO), 200
International Maritime Organization (IMO), conventions, 176, 178
International Overseas Seamen’s Union (Kiribati), 200
International Shipping Federation (ISF), 200
International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF):
contracts, 200;
Kiribati negotiations, 200–201, 236n14;
rates, 182
iron, economic impacts:
George Forster claims moral corruption, 74
Japanese, as crews:
Hawai‘i, 147
Jones, John Coffin, 89
junior officers, literacy, 109
(p.257) Kameeiamoku, 83
Kamehameha I, 46, 83–84, 86, 88
Kamehameha II (Liholiho), 88
Kamehameha III, 88
kanaka, crews, 103, 130
Kau, Moala (navigator), 46, 71
kava (yaqona):
carried to islands, 40, 43;
feasts, 53;
traded, 172
Kelly, James, 93
Kete, Tomasi Cama, 177–178
King, Philip Gidley (Governor, NSW), 77–79
Kiribati (contemporary):
allotments, 201;
analysis of crew lists, 190;
community attitudes to seafarers, 201–202;
Hamburg Süd line, 188;
health, 195;
life at sea, 193;
maneaba discussions, 193;
Marine Training Centre, 189;
national income, 205;
recruitment by quota, 189;
retirement, 205;
sailors’ profiles, 193;
sexual behavior of seafarers, 198–199;
sexually transmitted infections, 197–198;
stresses on marriage, 203;
Tarawa alternative residence, 203–204;
value added prospects in seafaring, 206;
wages of seafarers, 200;
wives’ responsibilities, 203;
women and equality, 204;
women in maneaba, 202;
women’s maritime organizations, 204
Kiribati (historical):
colonial prohibition of indigenous voyaging, 146;
conflicts, 37, 48;
diversity of origins, 24;
driven away by wars, 37, 48;
navigational training, 34;
protest organizations, 156;
shipping services, 188;
trade unions, 199–201
Kupe, 8–9
Lapita, Neolithic migrants:
pottery routes, 23
Lau Islands (Fiji/Polynesia):
sea power, 47;
shipbuilding, 47;
vesi timber, 46
law of the sea (historical):
ancient rules, 132;
coastal states rights, 63;
customs of the sea, 75, 132–133;
freedom of the sea, 63;
indigenous laws, 71;
naval officer views, 63;
regulations New South Wales, 77, 78, 92, 94, 134;
safety legislation, 134–135;
seafarers adversely affected by new laws, 134–135, 229n56;
seafarers’ legal isolation, 133
law of the sea (modern):
conventions IMO, 176;
ILO, 200
lays payments:
induced risk taking, 120;
unfair on sealers, 126;
on whalers dangerous, 120
Le Maire, Isaac, 61
Legazpi, Miguel Lopez de, 61
Lewis, David, 36
longitude problems, 36
loss of ships in Pacific (historical):
Hawai‘i, 121;
most prone whalers, 119;
on reefs, 120;
survival prospects, 120;
wages cease on loss, 119
Loyalty Islands (Melanesia) seafarers, 104
Ma‘afu (Chief), 96
Macquarie, Lachlan (Governor, NSW), 92, 133
Magellan, Ferdinand, 38, 60
Mahaffy, Arthur, 146, 152, 155
Mahan, Alfred, 141
mana, of chiefs, 77
maneaba (Kiribati):
indigenous navigation school, 34;
meetings, 20;
place of refuge, 48;
rights to speak, 202
Manui‘a (Chief), 88
Maori:
arms in demand, 90;
beach-combers in commerce, 91;
flax, (p.258) food, kauri trades, 77, 91;
intertribal conflicts, 94;
ship shore conflicts, 91–93;
technically advanced Maori craft developed, 91;
temporarily controlled all shipping, 94–95;
Treaty of Waitangi, 95
Margaret, voyages of, 79–81
Mariana Islands (Micronesia), links with Carolines, 52
Marine Training Centre (MTC), 16, 189–190
Mariner, William, 3, 71, 96
maritime education and training, IMO regulations, 178
maritime heritage:
ancestor voyages, 207;
regional links revived, 208
Marquesas (eastern Polynesia):
arrivals, 23;
drought, 47;
kidnapping for crews, 104;
raiding, 47
Marsden, Samuel, 92, 94, 133
Marshall, John, 76
Marshall Islands (Micronesia):
flag of convenience, 186;
schooners, 157;
stick charts, 35
Meares, John, 103
medical care:
on ancient voyages, 40;
contemporary examples, 195–196;
on merchant ships, 124;
surgeons, 124;
on whalers, 124
Mendana, Alvera de, 61
mental health at sea:
isolation and stress, 197;
priests, political commissars, and unions on merchant ships, 197;
suicides, 196
merchant shipping companies, 139–140
mess rooms, 194–195
Metcalf, Simon, 83
missionaries on islands:
in arms trading, 81;
in shipowning, 81
Missions to Seafarers:
facilities in ports, 197;
modern problems reaching crews, 197
Morrison, James, 14, 66, 69, 72
multinational crews, 118, 133, 145, 188, 193
mutiny:
defined, 129–130;
incidents, 130–132;
killing of captains and officers, 130–131;
piracy a factor in mutinies, 131–132;
on ships with divers, 131;
yardarm hangings as penalty, 132
navigation training (indigenous) in Carolines, 34;
Kiribati, 34;
Marshalls, 35;
techniques, 35
Nawai, Apolosi, 155–156
near Oceania, 23
New Caledonia (Melanesia):
attacks on sandalwood ships, 122;
people’s protests, 231n2
New Guinea:
arrivals, 22;
trading, 30, 49, 54–55
New Hazard, voyages of, 86–88
New Hebrides (Vanuatu) condominium, 141
Nicholson, John, 81
Norfolk Islands, arrival of Polynesians, 23
nutrition, 123
Nye, David, 123
Ocean Island (Banaba), 160
Outer Eastern passage to China, 76
Overseas Seafarers Wives Association (Kiribati), 199
Pacific Forum:
agreements on shipping, 166;
membership, 181
Pacific Forum Line (PFL):
agreements, 165;
crew and officers, 185;
developing the fleet, 182–183;
services, 182–183;
shareholders, 181;
subsidies, 183
Pacific national shipping lines:
Cook Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, 181
Pacific women in maritime (Pac Wima), 21
(p.259) Palau (Micronesia):
sharks, 40;
trade with Yap, 51–52
Panama Canal, 150
passengers (interisland), 168;
trading, 171
Pattison, Simeon, 92
pearls, 106
Piailug, Mau (navigator), 207
Pitcairn Island (eastern Polynesia):
depopulated, 56;
mutineers arrived, 57
Pleistocene voyages, 22;
obsidian trading, 23
poems and songs, 1, 13, 18, 51, 69–71, 73, 105, 116
Polynesian outliers, 23
Polynesian perceptions of foreign sailors, 70, 73–74
Polynesian Voyaging Society, 207
Pomare (King), 78, 81–82
Pomare (Queen), 82
Pomare (V), 152
pork trade, New South Wales:
Tahiti, 79
press gangs, 101
price fixing, trading companies, 152
prostitution:
disease, 117;
sailor town establishments, 19, 116;
sailors’ misconceptions, 72–73;
views by Cook, 69;
views by Forster, 68;
views by Morrison, 69
protests against foreign companies:
boycotts, 151;
copra production strikes, 152;
defense of lagoon rights, 152–153;
government interventions, 152, 157;
island trading enterprises in Cook Islands, 158;
island trading enterprises in Fiji, 155–156;
island trading enterprises in Kiribati, 156–157;
island trading enterprises in Samoa, 154;
island trading enterprises in Tonga, 154–155;
island trading enterprises in Vaitapu, 153–154
Quiros, Pedro Fernandez, 61
race relations at sea:
discrimination in Pacific employment, 149;
foc’sle unity eroded, 145;
maritime union actions, 148;
race exclusiveness in Fiji trade unions, 170, 179;
White Australia Policy, 149
Rapa Nui (eastern Polynesia):
arrivals, 24;
boat forms (hare paenga), 57–58;
climatic factors and environmental destruction, 57;
isolation, 57;
people stolen, 107;
warfare, 57;
Western ships, 57
Raratonga (eastern Polynesia), prayer for Cook’s arrival, 69–70
rats (rattus exulans):
destruction ashore, 43;
sources of protein on voyages, 38, 41;
use of rat DNA in archaeology, 24
Ratu Mara, 185
reefs, 11–12, 41;
Minerva reef losses, 119–120;
passes, 41–42
Reynolds, Stephen, 3, 86–87, 116
Robertson, George, 3, 49, 64–65
Roggeveen, Jacob, 57
Rotuma (western Polynesia):
seafarers, 19, 104;
ship losses, 159, 175;
ships, 159
Royal Society, on humane behavior, 63–64
Ruatara (Chief), 121, 127–128
sailing ships (Western):
accommodation, 111–112;
free time, 112;
hazards of work, 112;
social organization, 110–112;
reduced manning, 137;
technical advance topsail schooners, 137
sailor towns:
brothels and crimps, 19, 212n42;
diseases, 117;
going home, 117;
independence of sailors, 117;
riots, 117, 226n61;
tattoo parlors, 20
Samoa:
first arrivals, 23;
political (p.260) divisions American and Western, 141
Schouten, William, 61
Schutz, Willy, 156–157
scientists (exploring ships):
collecting specimens, 67;
human classification, 68
Scott, William, 79
seafarer rights, 134–135
seafarers recruitment (contemporary):
international shipping, 186–188;
multinational, 193, 208;
Pacific, 187;
ratings surplus, 206;
world officer shortages, 188
seafarers recruitment (historical):
kidnapping, 104, 105, 107, 134;
law, 134;
numbers, 106–109;
Pacific crews preferred, 102–103, 106;
press gang, 101;
shanghaiing, 105;
shortages of seafarers, 101
sealers, deaths ashore in remote places, 121
seamanship, prehistoric, “intuitive perception,” 2
seapower (indigenous):
Bau, 46–47;
Hawai‘i, 46;
Lau, 47;
Tahiti, 45, 47;
Tonga, 46
second registry, 187
Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 176
settlements, high and low islands:
site values, 44
sexual behavior of sailors:
sexually transmitted infections, 197–199;
survey, 198–199;
treatment, 199
sexual customs, Pacific, 72–73, 212n41
sharks, respect for, 40
Shetlands Islands, mother wave, 14
ship stability, 168–169
ship symbolism:
a family, 10;
of female gender, 10;
figureheads, 15;
mother, 11;
sacred names, 16
shipbuilding (indigenous):
builder status (Matia), 28;
ceremonies, 14;
launching, 15
shipbuilding (Western):
birth of a ship, 15, 211n28;
launching ceremony, 15;
new types to Pacific, 99
shipowning (colonial policies):
attitudes to island enterprises, 158–159;
flag preferences, 143;
ports of entry, 144;
profitable routes, 160;
subsidies, 143–145, 159
shipwrecks:
dedication of sailors, 119;
Hawaiian coast, 121;
loss of wages, 119
slop chest, 105, 112
small vessel revival (indigenous):
Abemama, 157;
Cook Islands, 157;
Fiji, 158–159;
Kiribati, 160;
Rotuma, 159;
Samoa, 159;
Tahiti, 158;
Tanna, 159
Society Islands (French Polynesia), Spanish influence, 29
Solander, Daniel, 67
solevu, 172–175
Solf, William (Governor, Samoa), 154–155
Solomon Islands:
arrival of Pleistocene era, 22;
launching ceremonies, 14;
raiding, 48;
trade, 55–56
South America, contacts and sweet potato, 24
South Pacific Marine Services (SPMS), 189, 193
South Pacific Regional Maritime Programme, 188
steam versus sail, 141–143, 150
Storey, Justice (US), 134
Stowell, Lord, 134
stress at sea:
fast turnaround, 197;
loneliness, 196
strike breaking, 135, 162
strikes:
America, 148–149;
Australasia, (p.261) 149;
Fiji, 161;
Hawai‘i, 162;
naval strikes, 130;
Papua New Guinea, 149, 161–162
Sumsuma, campaigner for seafarer rights, 161–162
superstitions (taboos):
females, 16–17;
priests, 17;
sailing days, 16;
words, 17
swells, 13–14, 35
tabua (Fiji), whales’ teeth, 53, 55
Tahiti (eastern Polynesia):
arrival of Polynesians, 23;
European ships, 78;
internecine wars, 79, 81;
mercenaries recruited, 78;
New South Wales salt pork for arms, 79, 81;
Pomare ascendancy, 78;
royal fleet, 81–83;
shipbuilding, 81;
Tahitian crews, 79–80
tapa (bark cloth), 28
Tasman, Abel, 61
tattoo:
Pacific, 10, 20;
sailors, 66;
trade in human heads, 94
te Pahi (Chief), 92
te Puki (Chief), 92
te Taniwha Horeta, 11
Tevaki (navigator), 207
thieving on board, 18, 19;
punishments, 19
Thompson, Nainoa (navigator), 207
Thurston, John Bates (Governor, Fiji), 140
Tikopea (Polynesian outlier), navigational methods, 35
tobacco, addiction and currency, 70–71
Tonga (eastern Polynesia):
alliances with Fiji, 46;
destroyed vessels, 71, 96;
European ships, 54;
foreigners ashore, 96, 223n85;
navigators and raiders, 46;
seafarers, 117;
Tupoa dynasty, 46;
Tonga Ma‘a Tonga Kautaha, 154–155
trade dependence, isolated islands, 56–57
trade, informal, passengers and sailors, 171
trade rooms, 143
trade unions, 164, 193, 199;
America (mainland), 148;
Australia, 148;
Fiji, 161;
French Polynesia, 200;
Hawai‘i, 162;
Kiribati, 199–200;
New Guinea, 200;
New Zealand, 148
trading systems (indigenous), 50–57;
fei (Palau-Yap), 51;
Hiri (Papua New Guinea), 54–55;
Kula ring (Trobriand Islands), 54;
nodal islands, 49;
sawei (Carolines), 51–52;
Siassi (nodal), 50;
solevu (Fiji), 53, 172–175;
specialists in sea trade, 50
tribute requirements:
Carolines to Yap, 47;
Lau Islands to Lakeba, 47;
Rotuma to Tonga, 46;
Tuamotus to Tahiti, 47, 80
Tuamoto (eastern Polynesia):
Godefroy depot, 138;
pearls, 80;
vessel building, 158
Tui, Lakeba (Chief), 47
Tupaia (navigator), 1, 36, 42, 67
Tupoa (King), 155
Turnball, John, 3, 79–80, 84, 98, 102, 106, 113
Tuvalu (eastern Polynesia), Marine Training Centre, 190
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 181
Vaitupu Company, 153–154
Vanuatu (Melanesia):
first arrivals, 23;
flags of convenience, 186, 192
Viti Company, 155–156
(p.262) wages of sailors:
cheap labor issues Pacific, 106, 182;
ILO minimum levels, 201;
informal agreements, 169
Walker, Theodore, 131
Wallis, Samuel, 60, 62, 64, 66, 78
Western Pacific High Commission, 155
whalers (historical):
conditions, 111;
crews, 108–109;
dangers, 119–120;
insane people, 124;
Pacific officers, 109;
surgeons, 124
Whippy, David, 71
Wilkes, Charles, 50
Williams, John, 82
Williams, Thomas William, 153
winds:
calms, 33, 141;
hurricanes (typhoons), 32, 51;
local, 11;
planetary, 30;
planning passages improved, 141;
sailing seasons, 32
women at sea:
captains’ wives, 113;
global numbers, 17;
Pacific, 178–180, 187;
prejudices, 16–17, 113–114, 180. See also Fiji; Kiribati
women traders, 17, 37, 55–56
women’s organizations, 179, 199, 204
World Health Organization, 198
World Maritime University, 178
Yap Islands (Micronesia), relations with Carolines, 50–51, 55 (p.263)