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Crossing Empire's EdgeForeign Ministry Police and Japanese Expansionism in Northeast Asia$
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Erik Esselstrom

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780824832315

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824832315.001.0001

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A Disputed Presence in Late Qing and Early Republican China

A Disputed Presence in Late Qing and Early Republican China

(p.39) 2 A Disputed Presence in Late Qing and Early Republican China
Crossing Empire's Edge

Erik Esselstrom

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter examines the dispute between China and Japan over the propriety and fundamental legal legitimacy of the consular police established by the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs in mainland Chinese treaty ports and the Manchurian frontier. It first considers the presence of the Gaimushō police in the treaty ports of Shanghai, Tianjin, and Xiamen before exploring how the legality of the consular police's existence in the Chinese treaty port environment and in Manchuria came under fire from local Chinese officials, other foreign colonial powers, and even rival institutions of their own imperial government. It also looks at the Zhengjiatun incident of 1916 in Manchuria to highlight the wider Sino-Japanese conflict over the legitimacy of the Japanese consular police. Finally, it analyzes the reasons why the Gaimushō insisted on its claim for legitimate police power despite strong opposition from the Chinese side.

Keywords:   consular police, China, Japan, legitimacy, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, treaty ports, Manchuria, Gaimushō, Zhengjiatun

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