Evolutionary theory was not passively accepted but actively interpreted, constructed, and used over the course of a century. In pre-war Japan evolutionary theory and religion clashed mainly for political reasons. But overall religious thought and evolutionary theory mutually stimulated each other. Throughout Japanese modern history, religious thinkers tried to come to terms with evolution while rejecting materialist and individualist interpretations of nature, and find alternatives to the "struggle for survival" by finding the divine in nature and evolution itself.
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