This concluding chapter remarks on Ch'ŏndogyo's activities after the annexation, and offers some concluding thoughts on the organization's ability to adapt in Korea's turbulent modern history. Ch'ŏndogyo was a crucial player in the creation of a modern Korean nation, evolving through the often painful process of reconstruction and consolidation that happened before the annexation. Ch'ŏndogyo had its basis in the Tonghak movement that had been defeated in the 1894 rebellion, but because of the changed social and political conditions just a few years later, it was in many ways a different organization from its parent movement. By going through a transition comparable to that occurring in the rest of Korean society, the religion founded by Ch'oe Che-u was able to remain relevant to the changed conditions of twentieth-century Korea and become a significant contributor to the creation of a modern nation-state.
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