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The Lama QuestionViolence, Sovereignty, and Exception in Early Socialist Mongolia$
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Christopher Kaplonski

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780824838560

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824838560.001.0001

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Violence and the Contingent State

(p.223) Conclusion
The Lama Question

Christopher Kaplonski

University of Hawai'i Press

The conclusion draws together the arguments and material in the book to consider their contribution to notions of sovereignty, political violence, and their relation to the state of exception. It, shows how the final recourse to mass killing was in some ways an admission of defeat by the socialist government, a forcing of its hand after a decade and a half of an apparent reluctance to use physical violence. The turn to mass killings and destruction was a tacit admission of the continuing precarious nature of the socialist state and the continuing public support for the Buddhists. The chapter also reexamines the issue of the agency of the Mongolians themselves and what this means for our understandings of what happened in Mongolia in the 1920s and 1930s and why.

Keywords:   political violence, state of exception, Mongolia, political anthropology, Buddhism, socialism

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