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Salvation through DissentTonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea$
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George L. Kallander

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824837167

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.001.0001

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Another Tonghak Revolution, 1904–1907

Another Tonghak Revolution, 1904–1907

Chapter:
(p.124) Chapter 5 Another Tonghak Revolution, 1904–1907
Source:
Salvation through Dissent
Author(s):

George L. Kallander

Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.003.0005

This chapter examines the aftermath of 1894 through the case of Son Pyŏnghŭi (1861–1922), the third leader of Tonghak and the founder of Ch'ŏndogyo, to demonstrate how followers struggled to control the public perception of the community. With the demise of China as Korea's symbolic and cultural touchstone, the Neo-Confucian concept of stability lost its viability. Japanese imperialism took China's place, and Korean elites began to search for new ways to shore up Korea's eroding national sovereignty. Tonghak followers were involved in this debate about national identity. The failure of the Tonghak uprising and the increasing foreign involvement in Korea between 1894 and 1905 led Son and others to reframe the Tonghak religious message by constructing a bureaucratized institution in Seoul that rejected certain elements of the Tonghak past while embracing Ch'oe Cheu and his doctrine. This shift succeeded in popularizing a newly revamped Tonghak teaching; it also laid the foundation for Ch'ŏndogyo's participation in religious nationalist projects during the colonial era (1910–1945).

Keywords:   Tonghak, Son Pyŏnghŭi, Ch'ŏndogyo, national identity, Korea

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