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Salvation through DissentTonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea$
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George L. Kallander

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824837167

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824837167.001.0001

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The Tonghaks Have Again Arisen, 1864–1894

The Tonghaks Have Again Arisen, 1864–1894

(p.90) Chapter 4 The Tonghaks Have Again Arisen, 1864–1894
Salvation through Dissent

George L. Kallander

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter focuses on the leaders who carried on the Tonghak legacy following Ch'oe Cheu's execution. Tonghak was profoundly marked by state repression, Catholic persecution, and experiences in opposition. The chapter shows how shifting political context influenced new iterations of Tonghak teachings. Under Ch'oe Sihyŏng, these iterations emphasized nonviolence in order to protect the community from the government. The chapter also explains how Tonghak leaders molded a spiritual message into one with nationwide overtones in 1894. The Tonghak uprising sprang partly from government suppression of a community that rallied around new narratives and doctrine that spoke to the needs of followers. Faced with ongoing heterodox status, some followers chose to rebel to protect their ability to practice in public in the changing religious environment of the late nineteenth century.

Keywords:   Tonghak, Ch'oe Cheu, state repression, Catholic persecution, Ch'oe Sihyŏng, nonviolence, uprising

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