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The Qing Opening to the OceanChinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757$
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Gang Zhao

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780824836436

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.001.0001

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The Establishment of the Qing Maritime Customs System and the Growth of Private Trade

The Establishment of the Qing Maritime Customs System and the Growth of Private Trade

(p.116) Six The Establishment of the Qing Maritime Customs System and the Growth of Private Trade
The Qing Opening to the Ocean

Gang Zhao

University of Hawai'i Press

This chapter discusses the significance of the shift in seaborne commerce regulation from the Maritime Trade Commission (Shibosi) to Maritime Customs (Haiguan). Compared with the former system, confined to few major ports, the Maritime Customs system produced a network of management covering a larger number and different scales of ports and thus opened the way to the growth of private trade. Not only did this enable southeastern China—the heart of the Qing economy—to open up to Europe and other Asian states but it also encouraged both Chinese private trade and the triangle trade between China, Southeast Asia, and Japan. This trade prospered into the early nineteenth century, integrating China, especially its coastal region, into the East Asian trade network and the global economy.

Keywords:   seaborne commerce regulation, Maritime Trade Commission, Maritime Customs, Shibosi, Haiguan, private trade, Qing economy, Chinese private trade, East Asian trade network, global economy

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