This book concludes with a discussion of the scheme of rebirth and karmic retribution in India. It first looks at developments outside the Indian subcontinent, focusing on the belief in reincarnation and the westward spread of Indian notions of rebirth and karmic retribution. In particular, it considers the role of Brahmanism, Buddhism, and the religion called Manichaeism in taking the notion of rebirth and karmic retribution beyond its Indian homeland. It also examines the moral aspect of rebirth and karmic retribution, noting that the belief in both concepts presupposes that morality is part of the structure of the universe. Finally, it views the belief in rebirth and karmic retribution in relation to human behavior. It suggests that the study of rebirth and karmic retribution in India offers important insights not only about Indian culture, but also about human nature.
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