This concluding chapter reviews the evolution of Neo-Confucianism since its eleventh-century incarnation to its late nineteenth-century synthesis, reiterating key points from previous chapters before arriving at the question of whether or not Neo-Confucian self-cultivation still remains a relevant resource for society in the twenty-first century. In doing so the chapter considers the legacy of Neo-Confucianism as a moral and spiritual practice, whose principles still resound in surprisingly modern contexts. Finally, the chapter concludes with reflections on the nature of the Neo-Confucian self-cultivation program not as something stemming from universal truth, but as something which manifests in social interactions—a kind of “relationship ethics” that forms the basis of Neo-Confucian morality.
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