This concluding chapter traces the origin of the theological terminology and sophisticated metaphysical arguments discussed in Chapter 5, including the neologisms coined by Liu Zhi and his colleagues to name Allah in Chinese. It shows that one of the difficulties experienced by Chinese Muslim scholars is to simultaneously maintain fidelity to their Islamic faith while avoiding Confucian charges of heterodoxy. The chapter emphasizes how the Han Kitāb scholars, and Liu Zhi in particular, were influenced by the literature of earlier apologetic translators of Abrahamic monotheism in China and how they retraced some of their steps while avoiding some of their more obvious missteps, all in the context of the ongoing, syncretic dialectic of Chinese civilization.
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