What Is Haole, Anyway?
This chapter explores the way haole is produced in relation to other racialized groups in Hawaii. Specifically, it looks at the triangulation of haole, native Hawaiian, and local identities. It demonstrates how colonial racialization of native Hawaiians and nonwhite immigrants (locals) served to provide negative referents for haole. It discusses how many haoles today seek to be “anything but haole” (through denial, appropriation, and application of a colorblind ideology), but how local culture and politics simultaneously work to reinforce Hawaiian and local constructions of haole. Further, it addresses how Hawaiian and local constructions of haole are based not just on an understanding of colonial history, but also on a particular set of attitudes and behaviors distinctly out of synch with native Hawaiian and local values and social norms. These include arrogance, ignorance about Hawaii's history and cultures, greed (e.g. amassing wealth and taking up physical and social space), and the assumption of a stance of victimization in response to racial marking. While these attitudes and actions are often seen in haole newcomers, they are not limited to them.
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