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Women of the Conquest DynastiesGender and Identity in Liao and Jin China$
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Linda Cooke Johnson

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780824834043

Published to Hawaii Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.21313/hawaii/9780824834043.001.0001

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(p.165) Conclusion
Women of the Conquest Dynasties

Linda Cooke Johnson

University of Hawai'i Press

This concluding chapter presents a chronological analysis of the changes experienced by women of the Liao and Jin states over a 300-year period. The Liao and Jin women studied in this book include daughters, wives, mothers, widows, empresses, warriors, and outlaws. Four different constituencies have been discussed: Kitan women, haner women living under Liao control, Jurchen women, and Han or haner women under Jin domination. Many of the changes women experienced involved tensions between maintenance of indigenous cultural values or lifestyles and adoption of Han Chinese culture in a process known as sinicization. Three warrior women considered in this chronological survey are Empress Yingtian, Empress Dowager Chengtian, and Yang Miaozhen. This chapter also examines the ways in which women constructed their individual identities in diffrent times and places and ends by assessing the significance of studying women of the Liao and Jin conquest dynasties in the context of Chinese history as a whole.

Keywords:   warrior women, Liao state, Jin state, Han Chinese culture, sinicization, Yang Miaozhen, Chinese history, conquest dynasties, widows, empresses

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